Phytochemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Unripe and Ripe Dennettia tripetala (DT) Fruits

Main Article Content

Ekam I. Akpakpan
Eugene N. Onyeike
Charity. U. Ogunka-Nnoka


Phytochemical composition and nutritive value of unripe and ripe pepper fruits (Dennettia tripetala-DT) were investigated. Phytochemical, proximate, minerals and vitamin composition were carried out using standard methods. The unripe fruit of DT had significant (P<0.05) higher concentrations of terpenes, phytosterol, steroid, oxalate, saponin, alkaloid and phytate when compared to the ripe fruit; while tannins, phenol, flavonoid, coumarin, cardiac and cyanogenic glycosides were higher in the ripe fruit compared to the unripe fruit. The ash and lipid content of DT fruits were significantly (p< 0.05) higher in the ripe DT fruit than unripe DT fruit; while the carbohydrate and the crude fibre content were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the unripe than the ripe DT fruit. The energy value (kcal/100 g sample) calculated from Atwater factors of 4, 9, 4 for carbohydrates, lipids and proteins was 347.2 for unripe and 331.4 for ripe DT fruits. Potassium composition of DT fruits were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the ripe fruit than the unripe fruit, while zinc was higher in the unripe fruit than the ripe fruit. The concentration of Na, Se, Pb, Ca, Fe and Cu did not differ significantly (p<0.05) between the two fruits. DT fruits possessed a significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9, B12 and C than the ripe fruit; while the unripe fruits showed a significantly higher concentrations of Vitamin B6 and K than the ripe fruit. Therefore, unripe and ripe DT fruits may be consumed as potential sources of nutrients and phytochemicals which may be significant as dietary supplements.

Phytochemical and proximate composition, mineral, vitamins, ripening Dennettia tripetala

Article Details

How to Cite
Akpakpan, E., Onyeike, E., & Ogunka-Nnoka, C. (2019). Phytochemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Unripe and Ripe Dennettia tripetala (DT) Fruits. Asian Food Science Journal, 9(4), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Malhotra VK. Biochemistry for students. Tenth Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P) Ltd, New Delhi; 1998.

Eruvbetine D. Canine nutrition and health. A paper presented at the seminar organized by Kensington Pharmaceuticals Nig. Ltd., Lagos; 2003.

Temple NJ. Antioxidants and disease: More questions than answers. Nutritional Research. 2000;20:449–59.

Willett WC. Diet and health: What should we eat? Science. 1994;254:532–37.

Willett WC. Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer. Environmental Health Perspective. 1995;103(8):165–70.

Bourre JM. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: Update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: Micronutrients. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 2006; 10:5.

Paleologos M, Cumming R, Lazarus R. Cohort study of vitamin C intake and cognitive impairment. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1998;148:45-50.

Larner AJ, Janssen JC, Cipolotti L, Rossor MN. Cognitive profile in dementia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anaemia. Journal of Neurology. 1999;246:317-319.

Bryan J, Calvaresi E. Associations between dietary intake of folate and vitaminsB-12 and B-6 and self-reported cognitive function and psychological well-being in Australian men and women in midlife. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. 2004;8:226-232.

Ihemeje A, Nwachukwu CN, Ekwe CC. Production and quality evaluation of flavoured yoghurts using carrot, pineapple and spiced yoghurts using ginger and pepper fruit. African Journal of Food Science. 2015;9:163–169.

Achinewhu SC, Barber LI, Ijeoma IO. Physicochemical properties and garification (gari yield) of selected cassava cultivars in Rivers State, Nigeria. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1998;52(2): 133.

Okwu DE, Morah FN, Anam EM. Isolation and characterization of phenanthrenic alkaloid uvariopsine from Dennettia tripetala fruits. Journal of Medicine and Aromatic Plant Science. 2005;27:496–498.

Nwaogu LA, Alisi CS, Ibegbulem CO, Igwe CU. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Landolphia owariensis leaf. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(7).

Adedayo BC, Oboh G, Akindahunsi AA. Changes in the total phenol content and antioxidant properties of pepper fruit (Dennettia tripetala) with ripening. African Journal of Food Science. 2010;4(6):403-409.

Association of official analytical chemists. Method of analysis. Washington DC, U.S. 1990;15:1250-1255.

Onyeike EN, Acheru GN. Chemical compositions of selected Nigerian oil seeds and physiochemical properties of the oil extracts. Food Chemistry. 2002;77:431-437.

Onyeike EN, Ihuga AC, George C. Influence of heat processing on the nutrient composition of vegetable leaves consumed in Nigeria. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2003;58:1-11.

McGrath SP, Cunliffe CH. A simplified method for the extraction of the metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co and Mn from soils and sewage sludges. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1985;36(9):794-8.

Ashok K, Kumar RG. To develop a simple (UV-VIS spectrometric) method for the estimation of multivitamin with special reference to capsules & tablets. Int J Pharmagenes. 2011;2(1):43-8.

Ebong PE, Atangwho IJ, Eyong EU, Egbung GE. The antidiabetic efficacy of combined extracts from two continental plants Azidirachta indica and Vernonia amygdalina (Del). American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2008;4(3):239-244.

Goozee KG, Shah TM, Sohrabi HR, Rainey-Smith SR, Brown B, Verdile G, Martins RN. Examining the potential clinical value of curcumin in the prevention and diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. British Journal of Nutrition. 2016;115(3): 449-465.

Lupton JR, Turner ND. Dietary fiber and coronary disease: Does the evidence support an association? Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 2003;5(6):500-505.

Olufunke OO, Adeola EO. Comparative food contents of ripe and unripe fruits of African star apple, Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don (Syn. Gambeyaalbida). Journal of Research in Forestry. Wildlife and Environment. 2017;9(4):90-95.

Bhatnagar S, Taneja S. Zinc and cognitive development. British Journal of Nutrition. 2001;85(S2):S139-S145.

Weber P, Bendich A, Machlin LJ. Vitamin E and human health; rationale for determining recommended intake levels. Nutrition. 1997;13(5):450-460.

Harrison FE, May JM. Vitamin C function in the brain: Vital role of the ascorbate transporter SVCT2. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2009;46(6): 719-730.

Bryan J, Calvaresi E, Hughes D. Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages. Journal of Nutrition. 2002; 132:1345–1356.

Soni M, Kos K, Lang IA, Jones K, Melzer D, Llewellyn DJ. Vitamin D and cognitive function. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. 2012; 72(243):79-82.