Main Article Content
Sweet and Bitter Cassava tubers were fermented for production of cassava flours. The samples were peeled, washed with potable water and cut into slices of 5-6 cm length. They were steeped separately in water to ferment spontaneously for 4 days. The samples were serially diluted and 0.1 ml aliquot inoculated on appropriate media and incubated for isolation of bacteria and fungi. Physico-chemical, cyanide and proximate status of the fermented samples were determined. Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus spp., Klebsiella spp., Corynebacterium spp., Aspergillus niger, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus and Candidia species were isolated. Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Candida species remained till the end of fermentation. Sweet cassava had total viable bacterial counts range: 3.6 x 102 - 4.1 x 105cfu/ml; coliform counts: 2.7 x 102cfu/ml - 3.5 x 105cfu/ml and fungal counts 1.6 x 102cfu/ml - 2.3 x 105cfu/ml while bitter cassava had total viable bacterial counts: 3.3 x 102 - 3.7 x 105cfu/ml; coliform counts: 2.3 x 102 - 3.2 x 105cfu/ml and fungal counts of 1.3 x 102 to 2.1 x 105cfu/ml. Titratable acidity of both cassava samples increased after fermentation while the hydrogen cyanide and pH decreased after fermentation in both cassava tubers varieties. Fermentation reduced the cyanide content in both cassava varieties flours to acceptable limits and eliminated food borne pathogens from the floors thus making the cassava flours safe for human consumption.
Oboh G, Akindahunsi AA, Oshodi AA. Nutrient and antinutrient contents of Aspergillus fermented cassava products (flour and garri). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2002;15(5): 617– 622.
NRCRI. Guide to cassava cultivation in Nigeria, National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike. 2004;121.
Nweke FI. Cassava processing in sub-Saharan African: The implications for expanding cassava production. Outlook on Agriculture. 1994;23:197-205.
Mensah P. Fermentation - The key to food safety assurance in Africa. Food Control. 1997;8:271-278.
Assanvo JB, Agbo GN, Behi YEN, Coulin P. La microflore du ferment de manioc pour la production de l’attiéké Adjoukro à Dabou (Côte d’Ivoire). Bioterre, Review International. Science. De la vie et la terre N° special. 2006;286-299.
Amsalu N, Weyessa G, Asefa T, Wubshet A, Asfaw K, Edossa E. Variety development for other root and tuber crops (taro, cassava and yam), In: Root and tuber crops: The untapped resources (Gebremedihin Woldegiorgis, Endale Gebre and Berga Lemaga, eds.), EIAR, Addis Ababa Ethiopia; 2008.
FAO. Corporate Document Repository, The impact of HIV/ AIDS on the agricultural sector; 2008.
Egesi C, Mbanaso E, Ogbe F, Okogbenin E, Fregene M. Development of cassava varieties with high value root quality through induced mutations and marker-aided breeding, NRCRI, Umudike Annual Report; 2006.
Ano AO. Studies on the effect of Liming on the Yield of two cassava cultivars, NRCRI Annual Report; 2003.
Ogbe FO, Emehute JKU, Legg J. Screening of cassava varieties for white fly populations, NRCRI Annual Report; 2007.
Bradbury JH, Cumbana A, Mirione E, Cliff J. Reduction of cyanide content of cassava flour in Mozambique by the wetting method. Food Chemistry. 2006;101(3): 894–897.
Wenham JE. Post-harvest deterioration of cassava: A Biotechnology perspective, F.A.O. Plant Production and Protection Paper 130, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy; 1995.
Oyewole OB, Afolami AO. Quality and preference of different cassava varieties for “lafun” production. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa. 2001;(6)1:27-29.
Dhawale S, LaMaster A. Microbiology Laboratory manual. The mcHill Company Inc. USA; 2003.
Rachel OB, Oluwamodupe EG. Effect of fermentation on nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of fermenting Soy beans and the antagonistic effect of the fermenting organism on selected pathogens. International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2012;3(10):333-338.
FAO. Processing of Roots and Tubers In: Storage and Processing of Roots and Tubers: Agriculture and Consumer Protection paper; 2006.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis 18th edition, Washington D C, USA; 2005.
Raimbault M. General and microbiological aspects of solid substrate fermentation. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 1998;1(3):174-189.
Assanvo JB, Agbo GN, Behi YEN, Coulin P. La microflore du ferment de manioc pour la production de l’attiéké Adjoukro à Dabou (Côte d’Ivoire). Bioterre. Review International. Science. De la vie et la terre N° special. 2002;286-299.
Oyewole OB, Odunfa SA. Microbiological studies on cassava fermentation for “lafun” production. Food Microbiology. 1989;5: 125–133.
Obadina AO, Oyewole OB, Odubayo MO. Effect of storage on the safety and quality of “fufu” flour. Journal of Food Safety. 2007;27:148-156.
Brooke GF, Butel JS, Mores SA. Spore-forming gram positive bacilli: Bacillus and Clostridium species In: Medical Microbiology, Jawez et al. (Ed) 21st Ed. Large Medical book, McGraw – Hill, New York. 1998;182.
Okpokiri AO, Ijeoma BC, Alozie SO, Ejiofor MAN. Production of improved Cassava, Nig. Food Journal. 1985;2:145-148.
EEC. Commission regulation (EC) N° 2073/2005 relating to microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities, L338; 2005.
Tetchi FA, Solomen OW, Celah KA, Geoges AN. Effects of cassava variety and fermentation on biochemical and micro-biological of raw artinasal starter for attieke production. Innovation rom. Food biotechnology. 2010;10:40-47.
Abodjo – Kakou C, Tago Guehi S, Olo K, Akissi Kouame F, Koffi Nevmy R, Marina Koussemon C. Biochemical and microbial changes during traditional spontaneous lactic acid fermentation process using two varieties of cassava for production of a “Alladjah” starter. International Food Research Journal. 2010;17:563- 573.
Moorthy SN, Mathew G. Cassava fermentation and associated changes in physicochemical and functional properties. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition. 1998;38:73-121.
Coulin P, Farah Z, Assanvo J, Spillmann H, Puhan Z. Characterisation of the microflora of attieke´, a fermented cassava product, during traditional small scale preparation. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2006;106:131–136.
Mante ES, Sakyi-Dawson E, Amoa Awua WKA. Antimicrobial interactions of microbial species involved in the fermentation of cassava dough into “agbelima” with particular reference to the inhibitory effect of lactic acid bacteria on enteric pathogens. Journal of Food Safety. 2003;31:34-45.
Obilie EM, Tano-Debra K, Amoa-Awua WK. Souring and breakdown of cyanogenic glucosides during the processing of cassava into akyeke. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2004;93(1):115-121.
Valat C, Champiat D, Loiseau G, Raimbault M, Montet D. Use of ATP bioluminescence to determine the bacterial sensitivity threshold to a bacteriocin. Luminescence. 2003;18:254-258.
Eric G, Gosselin L, Raimbault M. Degradation of cassava linamarin by lactic acid bacteria. Biotechnology Letters. 1999; 14(7):593-598.
Fomunyam RT, Adegbola AA, Oke OL. The stability of cyanohydrins. Food Chemistry. 1985;17:221–225.
Oyewole OB. Optimization of cassava fermentation for fufu production: Effects of single starter cultures. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 1990;68:49–54.