Main Article Content
Breakfast strips were produced from different blends of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and soybean (Glycine max) flours with substitution ratios of 100:0:0, 90:10:0, 90:0:10, 80:10:10, 70:15:15, 60:20:20 and 50:25:25 and labelled as samples A, B, C, D, E, F and G, respectively. The blends were evaluated for functional properties, total carotene, vitamins (B2 and B6) and sensory properties of the breakfast strips with a commercial breakfast food (Flakes) as control (sample H) . For the functional properties, the water absorption capacity decreased while the oil absorption increased with an increase in substitution levels of the soybean flour. The bulk density, solubility, swelling power and swelling volume were higher in sample A. The least gelation capacity maintained a constant rate of 4% across the blends. The moisture content of the strips ranged from 7.25-9.40%. The Ash contents were below 3% for all the blends. The protein contents increased with an increase in substitution with soybean flour while sample A - breakfast strips from 100% orange-fleshed sweet potato flour showed the highest value for fats (5.62%). The fibre content ranged from 0.69 to 5.14% and carbohydrate content reduced with an increased substitution with soybean flour (72.25-78.70%). The energy value ranged from 351.90-384.80 Kcal/100 g which was within the limit recommended for breakfast foods. Total carotene content increased with increased substitution with orange-fleshed sweet potato (15.18-33.56 mg/kg) which is significantly higher than the control at 0.75 mg/kg. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that the overall acceptability of the samples produced compared favourably with the control. Sample A and B showed a vitamin B2 of 4.70 and 4.00 mg/kg, respectively. However, the values decreased with increase in the addition of soybean while vitamin B6 increased with increase in soybean.
Quanhong L, Tianze C, Caitongyi P. Study on the action of pigeon pea protein. Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology. 2003;1:7-11.
Ampofo V. Production and sensory analysis of soybean and wheat flour composite cake. HND Dissertation Cape Coast Polytechnic, Cape Coast, Ghana. 2009;5-7.
Marriot J, Lancaster PA. Bananas and Plantain. Chan HT. (ed). In: Handbook of Tropical Foods. Marcel Dekker, New York. 1983;85-143.
USDA. Global soybean production Forecast (USDA) Global Soyabean Production; 2016.
[Retrieved 22 May 2016]
Nungo RA, Ndolo PJ, Hagenemana V. Promoting sweet potato processing and utilization: Experience in Western Kenya. Africa Potato Association Conference Proceedings.2007;5:481-482.
Onwuka GI. Food Analysis and Instrumentation: Theory and Practice. Naphthali Prints, Lagos. Nigeria Publishers, Enugu; 2005.
Beuchat LR. Functional and Electrophorectic characteristics of succinylated peanut flour protein. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 1977; 25(2):258-261.
Takashi S, Sieb PA Paste and gel properties of prime corn and wheat starches with and without native lipids. Cereal Chemistry.1988;65(6):474-483.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, 20th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C, USA; 2012.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall, London. 1973;279.
Echendu CA, Onimawo IA, Somtochi A. Production and evaluation of doughnuts and biscuits from maize – pigeon pea flour blends. Nigerian Food Journal, 2004;22(1): 147-153.
Eitenmiller RR, Landen WO. Vitamin Analysis for the health and food sciences Boca Raton, CRC Press.1999;223.
Badifu GI, Akubor PI. Influence of pH and sodium chloride on selected functional and physical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) kernel flour. Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 2001;56(2): 105-115.
Okafor GI, Usman GO. Physical and functional properties of breakfast cereals from blends of maize, African yam bean, defatted coconut cake and sorghum extract. Food Science and Quality Management. 2015;40:25-35.
Agunbiade SO, Ojezele MO. Quality Evaluation of instant Breakfast cereals Fabricated from Maize sorghum soybean and African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). West Journal of Dairy and Food Science. 2010;5(1):67-72.
Mbaeyi IE. Production and Evaluation of Breakfast Cereal using Pigeon-Pea (Cajanus cajan) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). An M.Sc. Thesis Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2005.
Gabriel IO, Faith CU. Production and evaluation of cold extruded and baked ready-to-eat snacks from blends of breadfruit (Treculia africana), Cashew nut (Anarcadium occidentale) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). Food Science and Quality Management, 2014;23:65-77.
FAO 2010 "Soybeans, Production/ Crops/World for 2014". Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT); 2015.
[Retrieved 23 May 2016]
Kocherla P, Aparna K, Lakshmi DN. Development and evaluationof RTE (ready to eat) extruded snack using egg albumin powder and cheese powder. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal. 2012;14(4):179-187.
Adebowale A, Adegunwa M, Okunbolurin L, Bakare H. Production and some quality attributes of rice–bambara nut flour extruded flakes. Journal of Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology. 2016;13(1):67-74.
Honi B, Mukisa IM, Mongi RJ. Proximate composition, provitamin A retention and shelf life of extruded orange-fleshed sweet potato and bambara groundnut based snacks. Journal Food Processing Preservation. 2017;42(1):1-8.
White H, Merrill A. Riboflavin-binding proteins. Annual Review of Nutrition. 1988; 8(7):279-99. DOI:org/10.1146/annurev.nu.08.070188.001431
World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition, (2nd edn.). 2004;92.
Bender D. Nutritional Biochemistry of the Vitamins. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1992;269-317.