Health Benefit-risk Analysis of Locally Cultivated Mango Fruits and Branded Mango Beverages in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

I. B. Bwatanglang
S. T. Magili
Y. Musa
S. P. Zira
P. Alexander
Y. Adamu

Abstract

In this study, the vitamin, nutrient, antinutrient and heavy metal concentrations in Powdered mango fruit juices (sachet brands) (PMFJ), Liquid mango fruit juices (LMFJ), and Fresh or raw mango fruits juices (FMFJ) were assessed toward establishing a tradeoff between their health benefits and potential health risk on consumption. The analysis show the concentration of vitamin C constituting 50-70% and Vitamin A 30-40% by composition relative to other vitamins. The highest concentration of vitamin A and C were observed in the PMFJ, and the LMFJ samples. Relative to the bioavailability of vitamin E, K, B1, B2, B6 and B12, FMFJ contains the highest concentrations compared to PMFJ and LMFJ. The results further show the highest concentration of 0.79 mg/100 g and 6.85 mg/100 g of oxalate and phytate in the FMFJ. The analysis of the mineral contents show Ca accounting for over 50%, with FMFJ containing the highest concentration (57%). The concentration of Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zinc all falls within the acceptable range to constitute any potential risk on consumption. Based on the EDI values, the dietary exposure to lead (Pb) was observed to be above the oral reference dose (RfD) values set for Pb in edibles. Further appraisal for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk from Pb exposure gives a THQ values of less than one (<1) and a CRI ≤10-4. Overall, the results show children to be more at risk for Pb exposure than the adults. From the results, it could suffice to say that unhealthy agricultural practices and possible anthropogenic activities could be the probable reasons for the low level of vitamin A and C in the FMFJ samples. Furthermore, could probably be the contributing factors leading to the increasing use of additives and fortified functional foods to meets population demands and nutritional requirements as observed in the PMFJ and LMFJ samples respectively.

Keywords:
Mango, vitamin, health risk analysis, minerals, antinutrient.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bwatanglang, I. B., Magili, S. T., Musa, Y., Zira, S. P., Alexander, P., & Adamu, Y. (2019). Health Benefit-risk Analysis of Locally Cultivated Mango Fruits and Branded Mango Beverages in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Asian Food Science Journal, 12(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i230079
Section
Original Research Article

References

Hoekstra J, Verkaik-Kloosterman J, Rompelberg C, et al. Integrated risk-beneft analysis: Method development with folic acid as an example. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008;46:893-909.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Shao A, Dawson-Hughes B, Hathcock J, Giovannucci E, Willett WC. Benefit-risk assessment of Vitamin D supplementation. Osteoporosis International Journal. 2010;21(7):1121-1132.

Klaassen Curtis D, Mary O. Amdur, eds. Casarett and Doull's toxicology: The basic science of poisons. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2013;1236.

Wang B. Application of risk assessment in nutrition. Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J. 2015;1(5):14-15.

Ahn J, Abnet CC, Cross AJ, Sinha R. Dietary intake and nutritional status: Assessing exposure to the environment. Unit 3. Chapter 11:189-198.

Rodriguez PC, Durán ZV, Muriel FJ, Franco TD. Physico-chemical quality parameters of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits grown in a mediterranean subtropical climate (SE Spain). J. Agr. Sci. Tech. 2012;14:365-374

Haard NF, Chism GW. Characteristics of edible plant tissues. In: Food Chemistry (3rd Ed.), (Ed.): Fennema O. R. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, USA. 1996;944-1011.

Akinyele IO, Keshinro OO. Tropical fruits as sources of vitamin C. J. Food Chem. 1980;5:163-167.

Fowomola MA. Some nutrients and antinutrients contents of mango (Magnifera indica) seed African Journal of Food Science. 2010;4(8):472-476.

Agunbiade SO, Olanlokun JO. Studies on the nutritive value of the seed kernels of exotic and local mangoes (Mangifera indica).Biosci. Biotechnol. Res. Asia. 2006;3(1A):81-86.

Dangana MC, Auta YI, Mailafiya SC, Moses BE, Oluwafemi OJ, Ebyna KC. Determination of heavy metals in four mango fruit varieties sold in Minna modern market, Niger State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biological and Environmental Engineering. 2018;1(1):24-29.

American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 15th Edition. American Public Health Association Washington D. C. 2007;11- 34.

AOAC. Official method analysis. 12th edition, Washington D.C; 1990.

USEPA U. Exposure factors handbook. Office of Research and Development, Washington; 1997.
Available:https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/mango

Bwatanglang I. Diclorvos-mediated heavy metal uptake in leafy vegetables and potential health risk on consumption. LPJ. Natural and Formal. 2019;19(3):15-24

USEPA. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) – Generic Tables, Washington, DC: U.S; 2016.

Bwatanglang IB, Magili ST. Health risk assessment of insulin supporting elements in commonly consumed anti-diabetic medicinal plants. London Journal of Research in Science: Natural and Formal. 2019;19(4):11-22.

Gharibzahedi SMT, Jafari SM. The importance of minerals in human nutrition: Bioavailability, food fortification, processing effects and nanoencapsulation. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2017;62: 119-132.

Othman OC, Mbogo GP. Physicochemical characteristics of storage-ripened mango. Tanz. J. Sci. 2009;35(1):57-65.

Proshad R, Islam MS, Islam MN, Hossain MR, Kormoker T, Islam MS, Billah KMM. Promiscuous application of toxic agro-chemicals on pineapple: health hazard implications in Bangladesh. Food Research. 2017;2(2):139-145

Sies H. In oxidative stress. H. Sies, Ed.: 1-8. Academic Press, London; 1985.

Soetan KO, Olaiya CO, Oyewole OE. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review. African Journal of Food Science. 2010;4(5):200-222.

Vannucchi H. Interaction of vitamins and minerals Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1991;41(1): 9-18.

Sies H. Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 1986;25(12):1058-1071.

Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR. Antioxidant Functions of Vitamins: Vitamins E and C, Beta‐Carotene, and Other Carotenoids a. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1992;669(1): 7-20.

Tappel AL. Vitamin E as the biological lipid antioxidant. In Vitamins & Hormones. Academic Press 1962;20:493-510.

Golumbic C, Mattill HA. J. Am. Ch &. SOC. 1941;63:1279-1280.

Doba TG, Burton W, Ingold KU. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1985;835:298-302.

Schlemmer U, Mller H, Jany KD. The degradation of phytic acid in legumes prepared by different methods, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995;49:207–210.

Sandberg AS, Andlid T. Phytogenic and microbial phytases in human nutrition, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2002;37:823–833.

Ndie EC, Okaka JC. Risk assessment of antinutrient consumption of plant foods of south eastern Nigeria. J Food Sci Nutr. 2018;1(2):9-12.

Nooman SC, Savage GP. Oxalate content of Food: Food Science, Lincon University; 2006

Holmes RP, and Kennedy M. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake. Kidney Int. 2000; 57:1662-1667.

Noonan SC, Savage GP. Oxalic acid and its effects on humans. Asia pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;8:64–74.

Cowley H, Yan Q, Koetzner L, Dolan L, Nordwald E, Cowley AB. In vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of Nephure™ Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2017;86:241-242.

Mueller I. Analysis of hydrolysable tannins. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2001;91:3-20.

Israr B, Frazier RA, Gordon MH. Effects of phytate and minerals on the bioavailability of oxalate from food. Food chemistry. 2013;141(3):1690-1693.

Oguchi Y, Weerakkody WAP, Tanaka A, Nakazawa S, Ando T. Varietal differences of quality-related compounds in leaves and petioles of spinach grown at two locations. Bulletin of the Horishima Prefectural Agri-culture Research Center. 1996;64:1–9.

Greiner R, Egli J. Determination of the activity of acidic phytate-degrading enzymes in cereal seeds, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003;51:847–850.

Cholewa K, Parfiniewicz B, Bednarek I, Swiatkowska L, Jezienicka E, Kierot J, Weglarz L. The influence of phytic acid on TNF-alpha and its receptors genes' expression in colon cancer Caco-2 cells. Acta Pol Pharm. 2008;65:75–9.

Graf E, Eaton JW. Suppression of colonic cancer by dietary phytic acid. Nutr Cancer. 1993;19:11–9.

Truelove JF, Gilbert SG, Rice DC. Effect of diet on blood lead concentration in the cynomolgus monkey, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1985;5:588–596.

James HM, Hilburn ME, Blair JA. Effects of meals and meal times on uptake of lead from the gastrointestinal tract in humans, Hum. Toxicol. 1985;4:401–407.

Rose HE, Quarterman J. Effects of dietary phytic acid on lead and cadmium uptake and depletion in rats, Environ. Res. 1984; 35:482–489

Lind Y, Engman J, Jorhem L, Glynn AW. Accumulation of cadmium from wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, carrots and cadmium chloride in the liver and kidneys of mice, Br. J. Nutr. 1998;80:205–211.

Jariwalla RJ. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) as an anti-neoplastic and lipid-lowering agent. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:3699–702.

Yoon JH, Thompson LU, Jenkins DJ. The effect of phytic acid on in vitro rate of starch digestibility and blood glucose response. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;38:835-42.

Grases F, Isern B, Sanchis P, Perello J, Torres JJ, Costa-Bauza A. Phytate acts as an inhibitor in the formation of renal calculi. Front Biosci. 2007;12:2580–7.

Grases F, Sanchis P, Costa-Bauza A, Bonnin O, Isern B, Perello J, Prieto RM. Phytate inhibits bovine pericardium calcification in vitro. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2008;17:139–45.

Xu Q, Kanthasamy AG, Reddy MB. Neuroprotective effect of the natural iron chelator, phytic acid in a cell culture model of Parkinson's disease. Toxicology. 2008; 245:101–8.

Prynne CJ, McCarron A, Wadsworth MEJ, Stephe AM. Dietary fibre and phytate; a balancing act. Results from 3 time points in a British Birth Cohort Br J Nutr. 2010; 103(2):274–280.

FAO/WHO. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme codex committee on contaminants in foods. Working document for information and use in discussions related to contaminants and toxins in the Gsctff. Fifth Session. Hague, The Netherlands. 2011;90.

Saeed A, Safina N, Sultan MT, Seema M, Muhammad N, Anwaar A. Physico-chemical attributes and heavy metal content of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) cultivated in different regions of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2010;42(4): 2691-702.

Abdelkareem AA, Mahmoud MH, Ali DM, Khalid MA, Alotaibi SH, Elsheikh MA. Essential and toxic heavy metals status in some fruits from Turaba District (Saudi Arabia), health risk assessment. Science, Technology & Public Policy. 2018;2(2):26.

Elbagermi MA, Edwards HG, Alajtal AI. Monitoring of heavy metal content in fruits and vegetables collected from production and market sites in the Misurata area of Libya. ISRN Analytical Chemistry. 2012;8.

Kayika P, Siachoono SM, Kalinda C, Kwenye JM. An investigation of concentrations of copper, cobalt and cadmium minerals in soils and mango fruits growing on konkola copper mine tailings dam in Chingola, Zambia. Arch Sci. 2017;1:103.

Mausi G, Simiyu G, Lutta S. Assessment of selected heavy metal concentrations in selected fresh fruits in Eldoret Town, Kenya. J Environ Earth Sci. 2014;4(3):1-8.

Krejpcio Z, Sionkowski S, Bartela J. Safety of fresh fruits and juices available on the Polish market as determined by heavy metal residues. Polish Journal of Environ-mental Studies. 2005;14(6):877.

Rahimzadeh M, Rastegar S. Heavy metals residue in cultivated mango samples from Iran. Journal of food quality and hazards control. 2017;4(1):29-31.

Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW. Harper’s biochemistry, 25th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Health Profession Division, USA; 2000.

Beard JL. Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. J. Nutr. 2001;131:5685-5695.

Szabo G, Chavan S, Mandrekar P, Catalano D. Acute alcoholic consumption attenuates IL-8 and MCP-1 induction in response to ex vivo stimulation. J. Clin. Immunol. 1999;19:67-76.

Arinola OG, Olaniyi JA, Akiibinu MO. Evaluation of antioxidant levels and trace element status in Nigerian sickle cell disease patients with Plasmodium parasitaemia. Pak. J. Nutr. 2008;7(6):766-769.

Bwatanglang IB, Alexander P, Timothy NA. Vehicle-derived heavy metals and human health risk assessment of exposure to communities along Mubi-Yola highway in Adamawa State (Nigeria). JSRR. 2019;23(1):1-13.

Sun Z, Chen J. Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution at a rural industrial wasteland in an abandoned metallurgy factory in North China. International Journal of Environ-mental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(1):85.

Xiao R, Wang S, Li R, Wang JJ, Zhang Z. Soil heavy metal contamination and health risks associated with artisanal gold mining in Tongguan, Shaanxi, China. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2017;141:17–24.