Characteristics of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Flour and Its Application in Cake

Main Article Content

Newlove A. Afoakwah
John Owusu
Victoria Owusu


Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the physicochemical, sensory and functional properties of coconut flour (CF), coconut wheat composite flour (CWCF) and Cake produced from CF and CWCF.

Methodology: Flour was prepared from matured ripe coconut fruit (CF). It was then blend with wheat flour (WF) into coconut wheat composite flour (CWCF) to produce cake. The CF and CWCF were subjected to proximate composition and functional properties analyses. Also, the physical properties, proximate composition and the sensory attributes of the cakes produced from CF and CWCF were determined.

Results: The moisture content of CF and CWCF ranged from 4.5 to 9.04 g/100 g, the ash content of CF and CWCF ranged from 4.10 to 6.41 g/100 g and the dietary fiber content of CF was 11.16 g/100 g. CWCF exhibited a higher (87.1± 0.6) water absorption capacity and packed bulk density (0.79 ± 0.3 g/ mL). In this study, the cake volumes increased significantly (P < 0.05) in wheat flour (WF) as compared to CWCF and CF. The specific cake volume observed ranged from 1.48 to 2.01 mL/g. The blend of 50% coconut and 50% wheat flour increased significantly (P < 0.05) the moisture content of the CWCF cakes. The total carbohydrate content of the cakes varied from 20.40 ± 0.02 g/ 100 g to 63.05±0.14 g/ 100 g. Fat, ash and crude fiber and minerals (Ca, K, P Zn, Mg and Fe) increased in CWCF cakes. The sensory analysis conducted showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between CF cakes, WF cakes and CWCF cakes in the sensory qualities of appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptability. In terms of appearance, the panelists scored coconut cake highest, but was significantly different (P < 0.05) from coconut wheat cake and wheat one. The least liked sample in terms of texture was wheat one.

Conclusion: The present study underscored the potential application of coconut flour in the production of cake and possibly other bakery products.

Coconut, wheat, composite flour, functional properties, cake.

Article Details

How to Cite
A. Afoakwah, N., Owusu, J., & Owusu, V. (2019). Characteristics of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Flour and Its Application in Cake. Asian Food Science Journal, 13(1), 1-11.
Original Research Article


Trinadad T, Masa D, Encabo R, Chua M, Maglaya A, Castillo J, Loyola A. Dietary fiber from coconut flour: A functional food. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technology. 2006;309-317.

Ramaswamy L. Coconut flour: A low carbohydrate, gluten free flour. Inter-national Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine. 2014;1426-1436.

Pereira B, Venter C, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Arshad SH, Dean T. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens, reported adverse reaction to foods, food avoidance, and food hypersensitivity among teenagers. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2005;122(5):984–91.

Jacqueline B. Marcus. Culinary nutrition: The science and practice of healthy cooking. 1st ed. USA: Academic Press; 2013.

Becker R. Preparation, composition and nutritional implications of amaranth seed oil. Cereal Foods World. 1989;34:950– 953.

Welch RW, Haferfür die menshliche Ernährung imvereing ten Königsreich. Getr. MehlBrot. German. 1991;45:89–92.

Giami SY, Mepba HD, Kiin-kabari DB, Achinewhu SC. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of breads prepared from wheat-fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed flour blends. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2003;1–8.

Klava D. Improvement of nutritive value of wheat bread. Doctoral Dissertation. Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia; 2004.

Bodroza-Solarov M, Bojana Filipcev, Zarko Kevresan, Anamarija Mandic, Olivera Simurina. Quality of bread supplemented with popped Amaranthus Cruentus grain. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2008;602-618.

AOAC Official method of Analysis. 18th ed. Association of Officiating Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, Method 935.14 and 992. 24; 2005.

Ihekoronye AI. Ngoddy PO. Integrated food Science and technology for the tropics. 1st ed. London: Macmillan Press; 1985

Engmann FN, Afoakwah AN, Owusu PD, Sefah W. Proximate and mineral composition of snail (Achatina achatina) meat; any nutritional justification for acclaimed health benefits? Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2013;8-15.

Appiah F, Asibuo JY, Kumah P. Physical and functional properties of bean flours of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp) varieties in Ghana. African Journal of Food Science. 2011;100-104.

Moorthy SN, Rickard J, Blanshard JMV. Influence of gelatinization characteristics of cassava starch and flour on the textural properties of some food products In: Dufour O’Brien editor. Cassava flour and starch: Progress in research and development, Best ed. Colombia: CIAT Publications; 1996.

Tanya SNC. Development of high fibre cake using gram flour International Journal of Information Research and Review. 2016;2513-2515.

Malomo SA, Eleginmi AF, Fashakin JB. Chemical composition, rheological properties and bread making potential of composite flours from bread fruit, breads and wheat. African. Journal of Food Science. 2011;400-410.

Maeda KC, Cereda MP. Avaliacao de duasmetodologias de expansaoaoforno do polvilhoazedo. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos. 2001;139-43.

Larmond E. Laboratory methods for sensory evaluation of foods, publication No. 1637, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa; 1977.

Singh A, Hung Y, Corredig M, Phillips RD, Chinnan MS, McWatters KH. Effect of milling method on selected physical and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2005; 525-536.

Oppong D, Arthur E, Osei SK, Badu E, Sakyi P. Proximate composition and some functional properties of soft wheat flour. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2015;753-758.

Bressani R, Wilson DL, Behar M, Scrimshaw NS. Supplementation of cereal protein with amino acids, 111. Effect of amino acid supplementation of wheat flour. Journal of Nutrition, American Society of Nutrition. 1960;176-186.

Barrett DM, Somogyi L, Ramaswamy H. Processing fruits: Science and technology, 2nd ed. Florida: CRC Press; 2005.

Morita NT, Miyazaki M, Yamamori M, Miura H. Dough and baking properties of high amylase and waxy wheat flours. Cereal Chemistry. 2002;491–495.

Mbofung CMF, Abuobakar YN, Njintang A, Abduo B, Balaam F. Physico-chemical and functional properties of six varieties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. schott) flour. Journal of Food Technology 2006;135-142.

Owen G. Cereal Processing Technology. Cambridge: Wood head Publishing; 2001

Lakshmi M, Swarnali DM, Usha R. Development and analysis of composite flour bread Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;4156–4165.

Karuna D, Noel G, Dilip K. Production and use of raw potato flour in Mauritian traditional foods. Food and Nutrition Bulletin United Nation University. 1996; 162–168.

Udensi A, Eke O. Proximate composition and functional properties of flour produced from Mucuna cochinensis and Mucunautles. In Proceedings of the 1st Annual Conference of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Abia State University. 2000;170–174.

Singh N, Singh B, Sandhu KS, Bawa AS, Sekhon KS. Extrusion behaviour of wheat, rice and potato blends. Journal of Food Science Technology. 1996;291–294.

Agunbi SO, Sanni MO. The effect of ambient storage of cassava tubers on starch quality. In Root Crops. The small processor and development of local food industries for market economy. Proceedings of the Eight Triennial Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops. African Branch (ISTRC-AB), IITA Ibadan, Nigeria. 2001; 12–16.

Ade-Omowaye BIO, Akinwande BA, Bolarinwa IF, Adebiyi AO. Evaluation of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) – Wheat composite flour and bread. African Journal of Food Science. 2008;087-091.

Aluko RE, Olugbemi LB. Sorghum as a raw material in the baking industry. In Symposium on the current status and potential of industrial uses of Sorghum in Nigeria, Kano (Nigeria) ICRISAT; 1989.

Akobundu ENT, Ubbaonu CN, Ndupuh CE. Studies on the baking potentials on non-wheat composite flours. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1988;211–214.

Taha AOM. The role of sorghum flours starches (amylose/ amylopectin) in composite bread quality. MSc. Thesis. University of Khartoum, Sudan; 2000.

Shakhawat H, Mohammad RIS, Saifullah Md, Shahidullah KSWT, Afzal R. Md, Shams-Ud-Din. Incorporation of coconut flour in plain cake and investigation of the effect of sugar and baking powder on its baking quality. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2016;31-38.