Main Article Content
Aims: Gluten-free food (GFF) consumers reportedly have problems with the lower cooking quality of gluten-free pastas (GFPs) compared to gluten-containing pastas (GCPs). This work is designed to compare the cooking quality of commercial GFPs and GCPs population wise for contributing to the resolution of the issue in the market.
Study Design, Materials and Methodology: Cooking quality parameters of 10 commercial GFPs (maize based and maize-rice based) and 10 commercial GCPs (semolina), namely optimum cooking time (OCT), weight increase (WI), volume increase (VI), cooking loss (CL), and their microstructures were determined.
Results: GCPs had shorter OCT, higher WI and VI, and lower CL than GFPs (P < .05), representing higher cooking quality. GCPs showed more consistent cooking quality compared to GFPs. GCPs showed more consistent cooking quality compared to GFPs. GFPs made of maize showed higher cooking quality than GFPs made of maize and rice mixture (P < .05). When considering the microstructure, GCPs has a smooth outer surface where the gluten network provides a framework that holds embedded starch granules. On the other hand, GFPs has a protruding surface where gelatinized starch provides a framework that holds embedded protein patches, which results poor cooking quality.
Conclusion: GCPs shows higher cooking quality compared to GFPs. They also exhibited a narrower range for cooking quality parameters indicating their more consistent behavior than those of GFPs. GFPs made of maize showed higher cooking quality than GFPs made of maize and rice mixture.
Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work comparing the cooking quality of populations of commercial pastas (10 GFPs versus 10 GCPs) and embodied the issue.
Mintel, Gluten-free foods – US – report; 2015.
(Accessed 8 Aug 2017)
D'Amico S, Mäschle J, Jekle M, Tömösközi S, Langó B, Schoenlechner R. Effect of high temperature drying on gluten-free pasta properties. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 2015;63(1):391-399.
Sicignano R, Di Monaco P, Cavella MS. From raw material to dish: Pasta quality step by step. J Sci Food Agric. 2015; 95(13):2579–2587.
Hormdok R, Noomhorm A. Hydrothermal treatments of rice starch for improvement of rice noodle quality. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 2007;40:1723-1731.
Marti A, Seetharaman K, Pagani MA. Rice-based pasta: A comparison between conventional pasta-making and extrusion-cooking. J. Cereal Sci. 2010;52(3):404-409.
Lucisano M, Cappa C, Fongaro L, Mariotti M. Characterisation of gluten-free pasta through conventional and innovative methods: Evaluation of the cooking behavior. J. Cereal Sci. 2012;56(3):667-675.
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC). Approved Methods of the AACC 6650, (American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), St. Paul; 2000.
Granato D, Calado V, Jarvis B. Observations on the use of statistical methods in Food Science and Technology. Food Res. Int. 2014;55:137–149.
Gull A, Prasad K, Kumar P. Effect of millet flours and carrot pomace on cooking qualities, color and texture of developed pasta. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 2015; 63(1):470-474.
Voisey PW, Larmond E. Exploratory evaluation of instrumental techniques for measuring some textural characteristics of cooked spaghetti. Cereal Sci Today. 1973; 18:126.
Cubadda RE, Carcea ME, Marconi E, Trivisonno MC. Influence of gluten proteins and drying temperature on the cooking quality of durum wheat pasta. Cereal Chem. 2007;84(1):48–55.
Baiano A, Lamacchia C, Fares, C Terracone C, La Notte E. Cooking behaviour and acceptability of composite pasta made of semolina and toasted or partially defatted soy flour. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 2011;44(4):1226-1232.
Kelly AL, Moore MM, Arendt EK. New product development: The case of gluten-free food products. Food Sci Technol. (Campinas). Special Volume Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages. 2008; 413–431.
Gallegos-Infante JA, Rocha-Guzman NE, Gonzalez-Laredo RF, Ochoa-Martínez LA, Corzo N, Bello-Perez LA, Medina-Torres L, Peralta-Alvarez LE. Quality of spaghetti pasta containing Mexican common bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem. 2010;119(4):1544-1549.
Manthey FA, Sandhu GK. Effect of additives on the processing and cooking properties of pasta containing flax seed flour. Proceedings of the 62nd Flax Institute of the U.S. ed. by J. F Carter. 2008;143–149.
Kulp K, Ponte JG. Handbook of cereal science and technology ed. by M. Dekker, 2nd ed., New York. 2000;497–550.
Soh HN, Sissons MJ, Turner MA. Effect of starch granule size distribution and elevated amylose content on durum dough rheology and spaghetti cooking quality. Cereal Chem. 2006;83:513-519.
Da Silva EMM, Ascheri JLR, Ascheri DPR. Quality assessment of gluten-free pasta prepared with a brown rice and corn meal blend via thermoplastic extrusion. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 2016;68:698–706.
Turkish Standards Institution (TSE), Pasta Report. Turkish Food Codex 2002/20. Ankara, Turkey; 2002.
Padalino L, Marcella M, Sepielli G, Del Nobile MA. Formulation Optimization of Gluten-Free Functional Spaghetti Based on Maize Flour and Oat Bran Enriched in β-Glucans. Materials. 2011;4(12):2119-2135.
Sayar S, Turhan M, Gunasekaran S. Analysis of chickpea soaking by simultaneous water transfer and water–starch reaction. J Food Eng. 2011;50(2): 91-98.
Sissons MJ, Hwee NS, Turner MA. Role of gluten and its components in influencing durum wheat dough properties and spaghetti cooking quality. J Sci Food Agric. 2007;87:1874–1885.
Giménez MA, González RJ, Wagner J, Torres R, Lobo MO, Samman NC. Effect of extrusion conditions on physicochemical and sensorial properties of corn-broad beans (Vicia faba) spaghetti type pasta. Food Chem. 2013;136:538–545.
Wolf B. Polysaccharide–functionality through extrusion processing. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2010;15:50-54.
Bühler AG, Hardtmann AGS. Gluten free pasta production: Basic technological aspects; 2016.
(Accessed 21 Jun 2016)
Sandhu GK, Simsek S, Manthey FA. Effect of xanthan gum on processing and cooking quality of nontraditional pasta. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2015;50:1922–1932.
Marti A, Pagani MA. What can play the role of gluten in gluten free pasta? Trends Food Sci Technol. 2013;31(1):63-71.