Production of Malt-based Sugar Syrup from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Malted Sorghum and Millet Grains

Main Article Content

Okpalanma Emeka Felix

Abstract

The suitability of sorghum and millet grains in the production of malt-based syrups was determined. The grains were steeped for 50 h, germinated for 5 days at room temperature and were kilned for 48h to produce the malts. Mashing was carried out by three-stage decoction method and the resulting wort further hydrolysed with glucoamylase enzyme to yield malt syrups. Proximate analysis results showed that the crude protein contents in sorghum (11.3%) and millet (10.8%) malts were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in sorghum (10.36) and millet (8.58%) grains. Cereal grains (sorghum, millet) were higher in fat (6.83, 7.30%), ash (2.41 and 3.16%), fibre (3.31 and 2.63%), moisture (9.93 and 9.95%) and total carbohydrate (71.63 and 53.35%) contents when compared with the malts. Results for malting characteristics of the grains showed that sorghum had significantly (p < 0.05) higher germinative energy (82.53%), germinative capacity (90.50%) diastatic power (32°L) and lower malting loss (13.50%) than millet grains: 76.6%, 85.67%, 27°L and 18.47% respectively. Mashing temperature and pH optima results for amylase activity were 60-70°C in sorghum, 40-450C in millet and pH 6-7 in sorghum and millet respectively. Results obtained on the analysis of the malt syrup samples (sorghum and millet) were (%): Moisture (12.35, 13.46), ash (0.02, 0.04), pH (4.5, 5.0), total solids (82.20, 80.1), Dextrose equivalent (85, 81) and reducing sugar (70.30, 65.45) respectively. Viscosity, colour and taste of the end products were physically checked. Sorghum grain exhibited better potential for syrup production.

Keywords:
Malt, sugar syrup, glucoamylase, sorghum, millet

Article Details

How to Cite
Felix, O. E. (2020). Production of Malt-based Sugar Syrup from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Malted Sorghum and Millet Grains. Asian Food Science Journal, 14(4), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i430134
Section
Original Research Article

References

Annon N. Nigeria trade summary. Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), Lagos, Nigeria; 2003.

Roberto do NS, Fábio PQ , Valdirene NM, Eduardo RA. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil. Ciência e Technologia de Alimento. 2010;30:27-31.

Briggs DE, Hough JS, Stevens R. Young TW. Malting and brewing sciences, 2nd ed. London: Chapman and Hall.1981;1.

Sanjust E, et al. Xylose production from durum wheat bran: Enzymic versus chemical methods. Food Science and Technology International. 2004;10(1):11-14.

Aboje P. Production and export of glucose from cassava starch. Last accessed at Available:http://www.independentngonline.eom/news/l 90/article/l 8394/ 2007/01/06.html. on 2/27/2007

UNCTSD. United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database; 2010. (Accessed 27th February 2007).
Available:URL:http://www.independentngonline.eom/news/l90/article/l 8394/2007/01/06.html

USDA United States Department of Agriculture: World Agricultural Production. Foreign Agricultural Service. Circular Series WAP06 -12; 2018.
Available: http://www.fas.usda.gov/. 2018.

West Africa CAAD Program Design and implementation workshop value chain working group; 2010.

FAO: FAO STAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2018. Available:http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx

Institute of Brewery (I.O.B.). Analysis of barley, 5th Ed. Institute of Brewery: A Review; 1986.

Novellie L, Schutte RJ. Kafficorn malting and brewing studies. The susceptibility of sorghum starch to amylolysis. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1962;12:552-559.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Washington, D.C. Association of Official Analytical Chemist; 2004.

Shambe T, Victor N, Gambo E. Enzyme and acid hydrolysis of malted millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolour). J. Inst. Brew. 1988; 95:13-16.

Hough JS, Briggs DE, Stevens RE. Malting and brewing science, London, Chapman and Hall. 1981;1.

Makeri MU, Badau MH, Gunda HJ, Dikko H. Quality evaluation of malt beverages produced from improved Nigeria Barley cultivars. Journal of Applied Agricultural Research. 2011;3:181-189.

Meredith WOS, Anderson JA, Hudson LE. Evaluation of malting barley. In: Barley and malt; Biology, Biochemistry and Technology. A H Cook, editor. New York Inc. 111 Fifth Avenue, 3 NY: Academy Press. 1962;207-270.

Etokakpan OU, Palmer GH. Comperative studies of the development of endosperm degrading enzymes in malting sorghum and barley. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 1990;6:408-417.

Dahlstron RV, Morton BJ, Sfat MR. Proceedings of the American society of Brewing Chemists.1963;64.

Hartong BD, Kretchmer KF. Proceedings of the European brewery Convention Congress, Vienna.1961;69.

Nout MJB, Davis BJ. Malting characteristics of finger millet, soughum and barley. J. Inst. Brew. 1982;88:157-163.

Taylor JRN, Robbins DJ. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt. Journal of the Institute of Brewing.1993;99:413-416.

Aisien AO, Ghosh BP. Preliminary studies on the germination of guinea corn. J. of Food Sc. and Tech. 1978;22:124-126.

Dewar J, Taylor JRN, Berjak P. Effect of germination conditions, with optimised steeping, on sorghum malt quality - with particular reference to free amino nitrogen. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 1997; 103:171-175.

Ezeogu LI, Okolo BN. The effect of air rest periods on malting sorghum responses to final warm water steep. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 1995;101:39-45.

Morrall P, Boyd HK, Taylor JRN. Van der Walt WH. Effect of germination temperature and moisture on malting of sorghum. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 1986;92:439-445.

Kuntz RJ. Bamforth. Time course for the development of enzymes in barley. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 2007;113(3): 196-205.

Owuama CI. Sorghum: A cereal with lager beer brewing potential. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 1997;13: 253-260.

Sills AM, Stewart GG. Production of amylolytic enzymes by several yeast species. Cited In: J. Inst. Brew. 1982;88: 313-316.

Worthington, Enzymes and related Biochemicals. Millipore Corporation, nedford, M.A. 0173; 1979.

MacGregor AW, Bazin SL, Macri LJ, Babb JC. Modelling the contribution of alpha-amylase,beta-amylase and limit dextrinase to starch degradation during mashing. J Cereal Sci. 1999;29:161-169.

Beta T, Corke H. Genetic and environmental variation in sorghum starch properties. Journal of Cereal Science. 2001;34:533-538.

Akingbala JO, Rooney LM, Palacious LJ, Sweat VE. Thermal properties of sorghum starches. In: Mertin JV, editor. Internaional symposium on Sorghum Grain Quality. India: ICRISAT, Patancheru. 1982;251-61.

Sernna-Saldivar S, Rooney LW. Structure and chemistry of sorghum and millets. In: Dendy DAV, editor. Sorghum and millets: Chemistry and Technology. St Paul, M.N, USA. American Association of Cerael Chemists. 1995;69-124.

Lineback DR. The starch granule. Organization and properties. Bakers Digest. 1984;58:16-21.

Jamie Ramshaw M. Brew IDB 25th October, 2017: Simpsons Malt,The science of mashing. Brew Chem. 2017;61:210-218.

Owuama CI, Okafo N. Studies on mashing methods for beer brewing with sorghum. Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 1987;3.

Palmer GH, Etokakpan OU, Igyor MA. Review: Sorghum as brewing raw material. MIRCEN Journal. 1989;5:265-275.

Owuama CI, Adeyemo MO. Effect of exogenous enzymes on the sugar content of wort of different sorghum varieties. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2009; 7(11):1392-1394.

Evans DE, Van Weger B, Ma YF, Eghinton J. The Impact of the thermostability of α-amylase, β-amylase and limit Dextrinase on Potential Work Fermentability. J. Am. Society of Brewing Chem. 2003;61:210-218.

Mac Allister RV. Action Patterns of enzymes used in commercial corn syrup manufacture. Adv. in carbohydrate chem.and bioch. 1979;36:15-23.

Aderibigbe AF, Anozie AN, Adejunmo LA. Owolabi RU. Optimization of cassava starch hydrolysis by sorghum malt. New Clues in science. 2012;2:50-58.

Dufour JP, Melotte L, Srebrnik S. Sorghum malts for the production of a lager beer. American Society of Brewing Chemists. 1992;50:110-119.

Evans DJ, Taylor JRN. Extraction and assay of proteolytic activities in sorghum malt. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 1990;96:201-207.

Tatsadjieu NL, Etoa FX, Mbofung CMF. Drying kinetics, physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of “kindimu”, a fermented milk-based-sorghum-flour. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa. 2004; 9(1):17-22.

Inyang CU, Zakar UM. Effect of germination and fermentation of pearl millet on proximate, chemical and sensory properties of instant “Fura”-a Nigerian cereal food. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2008;7(1):9-12.

Dibofori AN, Okoli PN, Onigbinde AO. Effect of germination on the cyanide and oligosaccharide econtent of Lima bean (Phaseolus linatus). Food chemistry. 1994; 51(2):133-136.

Gee MC, Harold GW. An assessment of the tannin content of wild sorghum. Journal of Crop Science. 2008;43:1850-1870.

Lasekan OO. Effect of germination on α-amylase activities and rheologcal properties of sorghum (Sorghum biocolar) and acha (Digitaria exilis) grains. J Food Sci Technol.1996;33:329-331.

Yagoub AEGA, Mohammed MA, Baker AAA. Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seed. Pak J Nutr. 2008; 7(1):50-56.

SON. Standard organisation of Nigeria. Specification for glucose syrup. Abuja. 2004;89–91.

Pancoast H, Junk WR. Handbook of Sugars. Westport CT. AVI Publishing. 1980;180.

Abdullah M, Flemming ID, Talor PM, Whelan WJ. In: ‘Starch’ Chemistry and Technology. 2nd Ed. Acad. Press Inc; 1963.