Evaluation of Potassium Bromate in Bread in Ibadan Metropolis: Fifteen Years after Ban in Nigeria
Asian Food Science Journal,
Background: In 2003, the National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), the agency responsible for regulating drugs, foods and chemicals in Nigeria, banned the use of potassium bromate in bread on account of its deleterious effect and carcinogenicity in humans.
Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the level of compliance to the use of potassium bromate in bread fifteen years after ban.
Study Design: This study was made to fit a one way Analysis of Variance.
Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out in Ibadan, the Oyo State capital of Nigeria between July and December, 2018.
Methodology: Thirty loaves of bread were purchased in Ibadan metropolis. They were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of potassium bromate in them. Quantitative determination was done using spectrophotometric method that is based on the redox reaction between bromate and promethazine hydrochloride in an acidic medium. The absorbance of the product was read at 620 nm. The qualitative test was performed directly on a portion of each bread sample using 2 ml of 0.01 M promethazine and 0.6 ml of 12 M hydrochloric acid. The change in colour of each bread sample to purple indicates the presence of potassium bromate.
Results: All the 30 bread samples analyzed contain potassium bromate. The concentration of KBrO3 in the sampled bread ranged between 1.24 µg/g and 9.31 µg/g. The quantity of KBrO3 in each bread sample correlates with the degree of purple colour obtained in the qualitative test.
Conclusion: Since all the sampled bread had potassium bromate in concentration above safe level for human consumption, bread consumers and bakers are at risk of exposure to potassium bromate with health implications. The need for continuous surveillance and enforcement of the ban on use of potassium bromate in baking industry in Nigeria is recommended.
- potassium bromate.
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