In vitro Inhibition of Alpha Amylase and Glucosidase of Digestive Snail Juice by Crude Extracts of Cashew Cakes

Main Article Content

Gninfanni Silvère Ouattara
Doudjo Soro
Tia Jean Gonnety
Kouadio Ernest Koffi


The goal of this work was to study the effect of some solvents as extractants of total polyphenols from cashew cakes and test the ability of the extract with highest level of polyphenols to inhibit alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase from snail (Achatina ventricosa) digestif tract. For this purpose, water, water-methanol (50:50 v/v), water-ethanol (50:50 v/v) and water-acetone (55:45 v/v) were used as solvents. Extract with highest level of polyphenols was obtained using water-acetone (55:45 v/v). The average total phenols content varied respectively from 9179.89 ± 0.154 mg GAE / 100 g for the water-acetone extract to 55439.02 ± 0.117 mg GAE/100 g for the aqueous extract. The average flavonoid content ranged from 370.86 ± 0.015 to 200.88 ± 0.001 mg/100 g and that of condensed tannins ranged from 1852.09 ± 0.023 to 857.45 ± 0.050 mg/100 g. The in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes of the snail digestive tract allowed to determine the concentration of the extract that inhibits 50% of the enzymes (IC50). The IC50 of alpha-amylase was 0.24 mg / ml and that of alpha glucosidase was 1.44 mg / ml.

The results showed that cashew apple residue is a natural source that has potential application in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Solvents, polyphenols, α-amylases, α-glucosidases, diabetes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ouattara, G., Soro, D., Gonnety, T. J., & Koffi, K. (2019). In vitro Inhibition of Alpha Amylase and Glucosidase of Digestive Snail Juice by Crude Extracts of Cashew Cakes. Asian Food Science Journal, 11(4), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1047–1053.

Apostolidis E, Lee CM. In vitro potential of Ascophyllum nodosum phenolic antioxidant-mediated α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition. J. Food. Sci. 2010;75: 97-102.

Yukiliko H, Honda M. The inhibition of α-amylase by tea polyphenols. Agric. Biol. Chem. 1990;54 (8):1939-1945.

Bailey CJ. New approaches to the pharmacotherapy of diabetes. In: Pickup, JC William, G. (Eds.), textbook of diabetes, 3rd Ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., UK. 2003;73:1–73.21.

Cheng AYY, Fantus IG. Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Canadian Medicinal Association Journal. 2005;172(2): 213-226.

Ani V, Naidu K. Antihyperglycemic activity of polyphenolic components of black/bitter cumin Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze seeds. European Food Research and Technology. 2007;226(4):897-903.

Fujita A, Borges K, Correia R, Franco B, Genovese M. Impact of spouted bed drying on bioactive compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of commercial frozen pulp of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh). Food Res. Int. 2013;54:495 500.

Majhenic L, kerget MS, Knez Z. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of guarana seed extracts. Food Chemistry. 2007;104:1258–1268.

Andrade RAM, Maciel MIS, Santos AMP. Melo EA. Polyphenols Extraction Cashew Residues. 2015;35(2).

Romani AP, Pinelli C, Cantini A, Cimato D, Heimler. Characterization of Violetto di Toscana, a typical Italian variety of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). J. Food Chem. 2006;95:221-225.

Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 1965;16:144-158.

Wood JE, Senthilmohan ST, Peskin AV. Antioxydant activity of prodyanidin containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chem. 2002;77:155-161.

Marinova D, Ribavora F, Antanassova M. Total phenolics in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. 2005;40(3):255-260.

Bainbridge Z, Tomlins K, Westby A. Methods for assessing quality characteristic of non–grains starch (Part 3. laboratory methods). Natural Ressources Institute, Chathom, UK;1996.

Colas B. Purification et caractérisation des propriétés cinétiques et moléculaire de β glycosidases du suc digestif de Archachatina ventricosa. Thèse de doctorat d'état ès Sciences, Université de Provence, France. 1977;155.

Lowry OA, Rosenbrough, NJ, Farr AL, Randal RJ. Protein measurement with th folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 1951; 193: 265-275.

Bernfeld P. Alpha and beta-amylases. In, methods in enzymology, Colowick SP, Kaplan N, Eds. Academic press, New York. 1955;1:149-158.

Chessel D, Thioulouse J, Dufour AB. Introduction à la classification hiérachique; 2004.

Rufino MSM, Alves RE, de Brito ES, Pérez-Jiménez J, Saura-Calixto F, Mancini, JF. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chemistry. 2010;121(4):996-1002.

Sulaiman SF, Sajak AAB, Ooi KL, Supriatno, Seow EM. Effect of solvents in extracting polyphenols and antioxidants of selected raw vegetables. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2011;24(4-5): 506-515.

Naczk M, Shahidi F. Phenolics in cereals, fruits and vegetables: Occurrence, extraction and analysis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 2006;41(5):1523-1542.

Zhao H, Dong J, Lu J, Chen J, Li Y, Shan L et al. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006; 54(19):7277-7286.

Capecka E, Mareczek A, Leja M. Antioxidant activity of fresh and dry herbs of some Lamiaceae species. Food Chemistry. 2005;93(2):223-226.

Anam K, Widharna RM, Kusrini D. α-glucosidase inhibitor activity of terminalia species. Int. J. Pharmacol. 2009;5:277-280.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81:81-100.

Oboh G, Ademiluyi AO, Faloye YM. Effect of combination on the antioxidant and inhibitory properties of tropical pepper varieties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities In vitro. J. Med. Food. 2011;14:1152-1158.

Dineshkumar B, Mitra A, Mahadevappa M. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) from Murraya koenigii (rutaceae) leaves. Int. J. Phytomed. 2010;13:22-30.

Sharma B, Salunke R, Balomajumder C, Daniel S, Roy P. Anti-diabetic potential of alkaloid rich fraction from Capparis decidua on diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;13:457-462.

Panda S, Kar A. Apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) regulates hyperglycaemia, thyroid dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2007; 13:1543-1548.

Yoshikawa M, Wang T, Morikawa T, Xie H, Matsuda H. Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XXIV. Hypoglycemic effects of Sinocrassula indica in sugar-loaded rats and genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice and structures of new acylated flavonol glycosides, sinocrassosides A1, A2, B1, and B2. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2007;55:1308-1315.

Manickam M, Ramanathan M, Jahromi MA, Chansouria JP, Ray AB. Antihyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. J. Nat. Prod. 1997;13:609-610.

Tan MJ, Ye JM, Turner N, Hohnen-Behrens C, Ke CQ, Tang CP. Antidiabetic activities of triterpenoids isolated from bitter melon associated with activation of the AMPK pathway. Chem. Biol. 2008;13: 263-273.

Kavitha S, Kamaraj M, Rajeshwari S. In vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity of crude ethanol extract of Cissus arnottiana. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2012;2(4): 550-553.

Koffi E, Sea T, Dodehe Y, Soro S. Effect of solvent type on extraction of polyphenols from twenty three Ivorian plants. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2010;5(3): 550-558.

Layer P, Rizza RA, Zinsmeister AR, Carlson GL, DiMagno EP. Effect of a purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate tolerance in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clin. Proc. 1986;61(6):442-447.

Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Menichini F. Natural products as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and their hypoglycemic potential in the treatment of diabetes: An update. Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 2010;10(4):315-331.