Main Article Content
Background: During processing of banana, peels are discarded which are valuable source of potassium, dietary fiber with percentages up to 40-50% protein, 8-11% lipids, and 2.2- 10.9% fatty acids. Therefore a high value nutrition baking flour can be made using dried ripe banana peels and reduce disposal of the banana peel.
Objective: This study was conducted to develop a high value nutritious baking flour from dried banana peels.
Methods: Ripe banana peels were treated with steam blanching at 57 0C for 12 hours to prevent enzymetic discoloration. The peels were then cut into small pieces of 1cm in thickness for easier drying and placed on trays. They were then placed in a preheated dehydrator. The initial temperature set was a 62ºC for 12 hours. The temperature was reduced to 57 0C after 12 hours making it a total of 24 hours for drying banana peels completely. The dried banana peels were crushed into fine flour using sterile mortar and pestle. Banana peel flour obtained was incorporated in whole meal flour formulation at four different levels as 0, 10, 20, and 30 %.. Sensory evaluation was done by assessing the organoleptic properties on over all acceptability using a nine- point Hedonic scale. Proximate analysis in percentage was carried out on the following parameters; moisture content, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, Ash crude fibre, ntioxidant (Vitamin C) and total dietary fibre.
Results: Whole meal cake with 20% banana peel flour was found to be the most accepted formulation. It had good physical characteristics. Proximate composition results of 20 % ripe banana peel flour were as follows: Moisture-17.2±0.05%, Crude protein- 5.5±0.01%, Crude fibre- 19.2±0.01%, Ash 8.8±0.02% and Carbohydrates- 14.6±0.01%., Lipids 1.5±0.01, Vitamin C91.30±0.01 and total dietary fibre 20.14±0.01 for 20% banana peels flour.
Conclusion: Ripe banana peel flour has potentials to be added in to patent baking flour to make healthy food products.
Nasution Z, Lim RY, Wan Hafiz WZS. Banana peel flour; An alternative ingredient for whole meal bread; 2012.
Pramod Kerkar MD, FFARCSI. Pain assist inc. Nutritional facts of banana peel and its health benefits; 2018.
Sagar NA, Pareek S, Sharma S, Yahia EM, Lobo MG. Fruit and vegetable waste: Bioactive compounds, their extraction and possible utilization; 2018.
Orwing J, Business insider. Banana peel is just as nutritious as the flesh; 2016.
Pramod Kerkar MD, FFARCSI. Pain Assist Inc. Nutritional facts of banana peel and its health benefits; 2018.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist), Official methods of analysis. Washington DC, 19th Edition. 2012;173.
Glabe M, Zacchi G. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for efficient bioethanol production. Adv. Bichem. Eng./Bitechnol. 2007;108:41–65.
Hassan Pyar, Peh KK. Chemical compositions of banana peels (Musa sapientum) Fruits cultivated in Malaysia using proximate analysis. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment. 2018:22.
Wilson S. Sarah wilson kitchen waste hacks and banana peel recipie. Pan Macmillan Australia pty limited; 2019.
Adeyemi OS, Oladiji AT. Compositional changes in banana (Musa sp) fruits during ripening. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(5):858-859.
James CJ. The analytical chemistry of foods, Chapman and Hall, New York; 1995.
Marles R. Mineral nutrient composition of vegetables, fruits and grains: The context of reports of apparent historical declines. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2017;56:93-103.
Lupton JR. Microbial degradation products influence colon cancer risk: The butyrate controversy. Journal of Nutrition. 2004;134(2):479-82.
Abubakar US, Yusuf KM, Safiyanu I, Abdullahi S, Saidu SR, Abdu GT, Indee AM. Proximate and mineral composition of corn cob, banana and plantain peels. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2016;1(6):25-27.
[ISSN: 2455-4898] Impact Factor: RJIF5.14
Zakaria A. Salih Azhari Siddeeg, Rania T. Taha M aisa Bushra Al Farga Ammar Ali O. Ali. Physicochemical and functional properties of pulps and peels flour of dried green and ripe banana (Cavendish). International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences. 2017;4(6).
[ISSN (Online): 2348 3997].
Emaga TH, Robert C, Ronkart SN, Wathelet B, Paquot M. Dietary fiber components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plaintain varieties. Bioresource Technology. 2008;99:4346-43454.
Morais R, Rotta E, Sargi S, Bonafe E, Suzuki R, Souza N, Matsushita M, Visentainer J. Proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the different parts and dried peels of tropical fruits cultivated in Brazil. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2017;28(2):308-318.
Munguti JM, Liti DM, Waidbacher H, Straif M, Zollitsch W. Proximate composition of selected potential feedstuffs for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) production in Kenya. Die Bodenkultur. 2006;57(3):131-141.