Nutritional Composition, Functional Properties and Food Applications of Millet Grains
Asian Food Science Journal,
Millet is an important nutritious ancient minor cereal food crop. This work reviews the composition, functional properties and food application of millet grains. The review shows that this cereal grains is a good source of carbohydrate and starch, with minute proteins, fat, vitamins and other nutrients. The functional properties of the cereal grains (Millet) was also evaluated and the findings gotten from various authors shows that the grains has a good functional properties in terms of their bulk density, oil absorption capacity, water absorption capacity, least gelatinization temperature and host of others. The pasting properties were also researched on and various authors attested to the potentiality of the grains in terms of the pasting properties. The food applications of the grains was not left out since the basic essence of this review is to see to the betterment of the livelihood of human, as such the various foods that can be produced from these grains were also looked into foods like millet ball “Fura”, tuwo, gruel, alcoholic beverages (like pito, burukutu) and non-alcoholic beverages (like “kunu zaki”) where all examined and conclusively the grains were rich sources of meals.
How to Cite
Sireesha Y, Kasetti RB, Swapna SAS, Apparao C. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Setaria italica seeds in STZ diabetic rats. Patho-physiology. 2011;18(2):159–64.
Pradeep SR, Guha G. Effect of processing methods on the nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) extracts. Food Chemistry. 2011;126:1643–7.
Devi PB, Vijayabharathi RS, Sathyabama NG, Priyadarisini VB. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011; 11:584-9.
Kumar KK, Parameshwaran PK. Characterization of storage protein from selected varieties of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L) Beauv). Journal of Agricultural Science. 2016;77:535–42.
Siwela M, Taylor JRN, de-Milliano WAJ, Duodu KG. Influence of phenolics in finger millet on grain and malt fungal load, and malt quality. Food Chemistry. 2010; 121(2):443–9.
Songr´e-Ouattara LT, Mouquet-Rivier C, Icard-Verni`ere C, Humblot C, Diawara B, Guyot JP. Enzyme activities of lactic acid bacteria from a pearl millet fer- mented gruel (ben-saalga) of functional interest in nutrition. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2008;128(2):395- 400.
Jideani VA, Nkama I, Agbo EB, Jideani IA. Fura production in some northern states of Nigeria—A survey. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2012;56:23.
Ramashia SE, Anyasi TA, Gwata ET, Meddows-Taylor S, Jideani AIO. Processing, nutritional composition and health benefits of finger millet in sub-saharan Africa. Food Science and Technology. 2019;39(2):253-266.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division. Statistics Division; 2012.
Chandrasekara A, Naczk M, Shahidi F. Effect of processing on the antioxidant activity of millet grains. Food Chemistry. 2012;133:1–9.
Jideani AI, Jideani VA. Traditional and possible technology uses of Digitaria exillis (Acha) and Digitaria ibrua: A review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2011;54:362-373.
Kaur KD, Jha A, Sabikhi L, Singh AK. Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;11:612-9.
Krishnan RM, Dharmaraj U, Malleshi NG. Influence of decortication, popping and malting on bioaccessibility of calcium, iron and zinc in finger millet. Food Science and Technology. 2012;48:169–74.
Truswell AS. Cereal grain and coronary heart disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;56(1):1–4.
Gupta N, Srivastava AK, Pandey VN. Biodiversity and nutraceutical quality of some indian millets. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, India Section B: International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences. 2012;20(4):1555-1561.
Bouis HE. Enrichment of food staples through plant breeding: A new strategy for fighting micronutrient malnutrition. Nutri-tion. 2000;16:701–4.
Pradhan A, Nag SK, Patil SK. Dietary management of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaerth) controls diabetes. Current Science. 2010;98(6):763–5.
Verma S, Srivastava S. Tiwari N. Comparative study on nutritional and sensory quality of barnyard and foxtail millet food products with traditional rice products. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(8):5147–5155.
Puranik S, Kam J, Sahu PP, Yadav R, Srivastava RK, Ojulong H, Yadav R. Harnessing Finger Millet to Combat Calcium Deficiency in Humans: Challenges and Prospects. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2017;8:1311.
Saha S, Gupta A, Singh, SRK, Bharti N, Singh KP, Mahajan V, Gupta HS. Compositional and varietal influence of finger millet flour on rheological properties of dough and quality of biscuit. Food Science Technology. 2011;44(3):616–21.
Singh P, Raghuvanshi RS. Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Science. 2012;6(4):77–84.
Ahmed SM, Saleh QZ, Jing C, Qun S. Millet Grains: Nutritional Quality, Processing, and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2013;12:280-292.
Mal B, Padulosi S, Ravi SB. Minor millets in South Asia: Learnings from IFAD-NUS Project in India and Nepal. Maccarese, Rome, Italy: Bioversity Intl and Chennai, India: M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation. 2010;1–185.
Singh KP, Mishra A, Mishra HN. Fuzzy analysis of sensory attributes of bread prepared from millet-based composite flours. LWT—Food Science and Technology. 2012;48:276–82.
Sreeramulu D, Vijaya CKR, Raghunath M. Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereals, millets, pulses and legumes in India. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2009;46:112-115.
Gyan-Chand K, Morya V, Mishra HS, Shakya S, Raj B, Yadav KN. International Journal of Advanced Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy. 2017; 6(1): 447-452.
Mohamed TK, Zhu K, Issoufou A, Fatmata T, Zhou H. Functionality, in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of two varieties of defatted foxtail millet protein concentrates. Interna-tional Journal of Molecular Science. 2009;10:522–438.
Azad MOK, Jeong DI, Adnan M, Salitxay T, Heo JW, Naznin MT, Lim JD, Cho DH, Park BJ, Park CH. Effect of different processing methods on the accumulation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant profile of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Flour. Foods. 2019;8:230-243.
Rathore T, Singh R, Kamble DB, Upadhyay A, Thangalakshmi S. Review on finger millet: Processing and value addition. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2019;8(4):283-291.
Gupta R. RAGI, a boon to nutritional security. Indian Agriculture Research Institute Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110012; 2014.
Glew RS, Chuang LT, Roberts JL, Glew RH. Amino acid, fatty acid and mineral content of black finger millet (Eleusine coracana) cultivated on the Jos Plateau of Nigeria. Foods. 2008;2(2):115–8.
Hegde PS, Chandra TS. ESR spectroscopic study reveals higher free radical quenching potential in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) compared to other millets. Food Chemistry. 2005; 92:177–82.
Kalinova J, Moudry J. Content and quality of protein in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) varieties. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2006;61:45–9.
Subramanian S, Viswanathan R. Bulk density and friction coefficients of selected minor millet grains and flours. Journal of Food Engineering. 2007;81(1):118–26.
Liu J, Tang X, Zhang Y, Zhao W. Determination of the volatile composition in brown millet, milled millet and millet bran by gas chromatography/ mass spectro-metry. Molecules. 2012;17:2271–82.
Khader V. Textbook of Food Science and Technology. ICAR, New Delhi. Khatkar BS (2005). Trends in cereal processing. Bev. Food World. 2001;32(11):65-67.
Guo XX, Sha XH, Rahman E, Wang Y, Ji B, Wu W, Zhou F. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid profile of millet bran wine and the synergistic interaction between major polyphenols. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018;55(3):1010–1020.
Kaur M, Singh N. Relationships between selected properties of seeds, flours, and starches from different chickpea cultivars. International Journal of Food Properties. 2006;9:597-608.
Siddiq M, Nasir M, Ravi R, Dolan KD, Butt MS. Effect of defatted maize germ addition on the functional and textural properties of wheat flour. International Journal of Food Properties. 2009;12:860-870.
Thilagavathi T, Kanchana S, Banumathi P, Hemalatha G, Vanniarajani C, Sundar M, Ilamaran M. Physico-chemical and functional characteristics of selected millets and pulses. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015;8(S7): 147–155.
Butt MS, Batool R. Nutritional and functional properties of some promising legumes proteins isolates. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2010;9(4):373–379.
John EK, Nicholas M. Functional properties of proteins in foods: A survey. CRC critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2009;7(3):201-206.
Amir G, Kamlesh P, Pradyuman K. Physico-chemical, Functional and antioxidant properties of millet flours, conceptual frame work and innovations in agroecology and food sciences. 2016; 585-589.
Yadahally N, Vadakkoot B, Vishwas M. Nutritional implication and flour functionality of popped/ expanded horse gram. Journal of Food Chemistry. 2008; 108:891-899.
Krishnan R, Dharmaraj U, Sai MR, Malleshi NG. Quality characteristics of biscuits prepared from finger millet seed coat based composite flour. Food Chemistry. 2011;129:499–506.
Appiah F, Asibuo JY, Kumah P. Physicochemical and functional properties of bean flours of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties in Ghana. African Journal of Food Science. 2011; 5(2):100–104.
Yagoub A, Abdalla AA. Effect of domestic processing methods on chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of protein and starch and functional properties of millet seed. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biolological Science. 2007; 3:24–34.
Akubor PI. Effect of processing methods on the chemical composition and functional properties of pigeon pea seed. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research. 2017;2(2):1-8.
Jayathilake C, Visvanathan R, Deen A, Bangamuwage R, Jayawardana BC, Nammic S, Liyanage R. Cowpea: An overview on its nutritional facts and health benefits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2018;20(1):8-15.
Udensi E, Okoronkwo K. Effects of fermentation and germination on the physicochemical properties of Mucuna cochinchinensis protein isolate. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:896–900.
Iwe MO, Michael N, Madu NE, Obasi NE, Onwuka GI. Physicochemical and Pasting Properties High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) and Wheat Flour Blends. Agrotechnology. 2017;6:167.
ARSO. African Organization for Standardization. High Quality Cassava Flour Specification CD-ARS 840 First Edition 2012 Reference No. ARS 840:2012(E) ICS 67.080.20; 2012.
Eleazu OC, Eleazu KC, Kolawole S. Use of indigenous technology for theproduction of high quality cassava flour with similar food qualities as wheat flour. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 2014; 13:249-256.
Chandra S, Samsher V. Assessment of functional properties of different flours. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(38):4849-4852.
Sanni LO, Ikuomola DP, Sanni SA. Effect of length of fermentation and varieties on the quality of sweet potato gari. Proceedings of the 8th triennial sym-posium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops Africa Branch 2001; 3:208-211.
Bhupender SK, Rajneesh B, Baljeet SY. Physicochemical, functional, thermal and pasting properties of starches isolated from pearl millet cultivars. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;5:96–103.
Zhang X, Tong Q, Zhu W, Ren F. Pasting, rheological properties and gelatinization kinetics of tapioca starch with sucrose or glucose. Journal of Food Engineering. 2013;114:255–261.
Yadav BS, Yadav RB, Kumar M. Suitability of pigeon pea and rice starches and their blends for noodle making. Food Science and Technology. 2011;44:1415-1421.
Alsuhaibani AMA. Rheological and nutritional properties and sensory evaluation of bread fortified with natural sources of calcium. Journal of Food Quality. 2018;20(1):1-8.
Karim AA, Norziah MH, Seow CC. Methods for study of starch retrogradation. Food Chemistry. 2000;71:9-36.
Shifeng Y, Ying M, Lucile M, Da-Wen S. Physicochemical properties of starch and flour from different Rice cultivars. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2010;5(2): 626-637.
Shobana S, Malleshi NG. Preparation and functional properties of decorticated finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Journal of Food Engineering. 2007;79(2):529–38.
Odusola KB, Ilesanmi FF, Akinloye OA, Ilesanmi OS, Zaka KO. Nutri-entcomposition and acceptability of cereal gruel (Ogi) produced from sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) supplemented with soybeans (Glycine max) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale), A publication of the School of Agriculture Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria; 2015.
Jideani VA, Wedzicha BL. Shelf life and predominating micro-flora of non fer-mented pearl millet dough (fura). Journal of Food Science. 2001;11:83.
Agu HO, Anosike AN, Jideani IA.. Physicochemical and microbial qualities of assessment of the isolates for industrial potential. Bioresources Technology. 2007; 98:1380.
Khetarpaul N, Goyal R, Garg R. Nutritional and sensory evaluation of nutritious porridge prepared using combinations of soy and sorghum grits. Nutrition and Health. 2004;17(4):309-315.
Togo CA, Feresu SB, Mutukumira AN. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from opaque beer for potential use as a starter culture. Journal of Food Technology. 2002; 7:93-97.
Mbajuika D, Omeh YS, Ezeja MI. Fermentation of sorghum using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a starter culture for Burukutu production. Con-tinental Journal of Biological Science. 2010;3:63-74.
Maoura N, Mbaiguinam M, Nguyen HV, Gaillardin C, Pourquie J. Identify and typing of yeast strains isolated from billi billi, a traditional sorghum beer of Chad. African Journal of Biotecnology. 2005;4: 646-656.
Lyumugabe F, Kamaliza G, Thonart B. Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of Rwandese traditional beer Ikage. African Journal of Bio-technology. 2010;9(27):4241–4246.
Sowonola OA, Tunde-Akintunde TY, Adedeji F. Nutritional and sensory qualities of soymilk kunun blends. African Journal of Food and Nutrition Science. 2005;5(2):2- 5.
Akoma O, Jiya EA, Akumka DD, Mshelia E. Influence of malting on the nutritional characteristics of kunu-zaki. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(10):996-1000.
Gaffa T, Jideani IA, Nkama I. Traditional Production, consumption and storage of kunu- a non-alcoholic cereal beverage. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2002; 57(1):73-81.
Wakil S. Isolation and screening of antimicrobial producing lactic acid. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2004; 8(S7):147–155.
Adebayo GB, Otunola GA, Ajao TA. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of kunu prepared from millet, maize and guinea corn and stored at selected temperatures. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010;2(1):41-46.
Abdulkareem AS, Uthman H, Jimoh A. Development and characterization of a carbonated ginger drink. Department of Chemical Engineering. Federal University of Technology, Minna; 2011.
Julio A. Fermented foods and beverages of the North-East India. Food processing, dried food, frozen food, juice and beverage; 2011.
Abstract View: 1947 times
PDF Download: 1437 times