Production and Physiochemical Evaluation of Fresh Cow Milk-based Beverage

Main Article Content

Christopher Nsaighamu Lawir
Qrisstuberg Msughter Amua
Samuel Peter Malu

Abstract

The aim of this work was to produce and evaluate the physiochemical properties of cow milk based beverage made from a blend of cow milk, honey, cocoa powder, ginger and garlic. The  composition of the samples were as follows: sample A (1 L cow milk), sample B (1 L cow milk, 0.12 L honey, 25 g cocoa powder), sample B served as base ingredients for samples C and D and prepared 1% ginger, 0.5% garlic were added to samples C and D, respectively. Sample A and sample E (vitamilk), respectively served as control I and control II. The chemical properties and proximate composition of the milk beverage samples were investigated. The result of chemical properties showed that the pH values ranged from 6.11 to 6.52 and were all slightly acidic while the percentage titratable acidity had the highest value of 0.168 for sample D and the least value of 0.086 for sample A. In terms of proximate composition, sample A had the highest percentage moisture content of 90.75±0.21 while sample C had the least moisture content of 87.7±0.28. The % protein, carbohydrate, fat, and ash contents increased as 1% ginger and 0.5% garlic were added to samples C and D and were significantly difference (P<0.05) for all the samples. Sample C had the highest value of 5.15% protein content while sample A had the least value of 2.85%. The percentage ash content ranged from 0.96±0.007 to 0.58±0.007. The fiber content of all the samples were below 2.25±0.007. A similar trend was also observed for the values of minerals and vitamins which showed a significant difference (P<0.05). This work has shown that there is improved nutritional content of the samples B, C and D which will go a long way to alleviate malnutrition. The pH of all the samples were near neutral, this could negatively affect the shelf stability of the milk beverage as a result of possible microbial infestation and thus there is every need to keep the product always refrigerated before use or should be consumed fresh.

Keywords:
Production, fresh milk, beverage, physiochemical, samples.

Article Details

How to Cite
Lawir, C. N., Amua, Q. M., & Malu, S. P. (2020). Production and Physiochemical Evaluation of Fresh Cow Milk-based Beverage. Asian Food Science Journal, 15(2), 27-36. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i230149
Section
Original Research Article

References

Griffiths MW. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products. Fluid milk products and frozen desserts. American Dairy Science. 2006;69:1163 – 1173.

Hemme TOJ. Status of and prospects for smallholder milk production — A global perspective. Rome: FAO; 2010.

ILRI. Livestock, people and environment, ILRI (International livestock research institute), Working paper 2, Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.

Enb A, Abd-Rabou NS, Abou-Arab AAK,m El-Senaity MH. Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals behavior during processing of milk products. Journal Global Veterinaria. 2009;3(3):268-275.

Bayemi PH, Webb EC, Ndambi A, Ntam F, Chinda V. Impact of management interventions in smallholder dairy farms of The Western highlands of Cameroon. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 2008.

DOI: 10.1007/s11250-008-9278-3

FAO. Dairy production and products: Milk processing; 2013.
(Accessed October 15th 2019)
Available:http://www.fao.org/agriculture/dairy-gateway/milk-processing

Abdelgadir WS, Ahmed TK, Dirar HA. The traditional fermented milk products of the Sudan. Int J Food Microbiol. 1998;44(1-2): 1-13.

Bahar A, Angelo N, Patrizia P. Production of Chocolate Powdered Beverage with Enhanced Instant Properties; 2017.
DOI: 10.3303/CET1757147

Banik SD, Kamal U. Microbiological quality analysis of raw, pasteurized, UHT milk samples collected from different locations in Bangladesh. Stamford Journal of Microbiology. 2014;4.
DOI: 10.3329/sjm.v4i1.22753

Douglas M, Smallfield B. Herbs, spices and essential oils. Post-harvest operations in developing countries. Rome, Italy: UNIDO and FAO; 2005.

Regu M, Seifu E. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) powder on chemical composition and sensory property of Ayib - Ethiopian cottage cheese. International Food Research Journal. 2015;23(3):1226-1232.

Abiola F, Abiose AH, Adeniran M. Biopreservative effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Garlic Powder (Allium sativum) on Tomato Paste; 2015.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12193.

Omodamiro RM, Chijoke U, Oti E. Storage and consumer acceptability of fruit: Ginger based drinks for combating micronutrient deficiency. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research. 2012;3(6):80–82.

Joseph AO, Joy EO. Physico-chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Market Yoghurt in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2011;10(10):914-918,
[ISSN: 1680-5194]

Adeiye OA, Gbadamosi SO, Taiwo AK. Effects of some processing factors on the characteristics of stored groundnut milk extract. African Journal of Food Science. 2013;7(6):134–142.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, D.C., U.S.A; 2000.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis. Association of official analytica chemists. 15th Edition. Washington D.C; 2005.

Klaenhammer TR. Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Biochimie. 2005;70(3):337-349.

Johanson HA. The composition of milk. In: fundamentals of dairy chemistry, 2nd ed., Webb HB, Johanson HA, Al – ford AJ. (eds.), The AVI Publishing co., Inc., Westport, Connecticut, USA; 1980.

Marco AP, Yasmine AAM. Sensory profile of fermented milk drinks flavored with fruits from the Brazilian Cerrado. African Journal of Food Science. 2015;9(6):379-389.

Ocloo F, Bansa D, Boatin R, Adom T, Agbemavor W. Physiochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour produced from jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds. Agriculture and biology journal of North America. 2010;1 (5):903-90.

Persson A. Clinical assessment of udder health status of sows at time of weaning with special reference to bacteriology and cytology in milk. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1996;44:143–58.

Barham GS, Soomro AH, Nizamani ZA. Detection and extent of extraneous water and adulteration in milk consumed at Hyderabad, Pakistan. Food Nutr Sci. 2014;2:47-52.

Dublin-Green MS. Quality evaluation of yogurts produced commercially in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr. J. Applied Zool. Environ. Biol. 2005;7:78-82.

Eckles CH. Milk and milk products, 4th ed. New Delhi. India; 2004.

Olusegun AO. Determination of vitamins, minerals, and microbial loads of fortified nonalcoholic beverage (Kunun zaki) produced from millet. Journal Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;4(1):34-56.

Shah NP. Functional foods from probiotics and prebiotics. Food Technology. 2001;55 (11):46-53.

Kassa B. Determination of trace metals Oliefera using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(17): 52-55.

Fulgoni VL. Food sources of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and potassium in the U.S. FASEB J. 2010;24:325.1.