Comparative Study of the Effect of Piper nigrum (White and Black) and Piper guineense on Lipids Quality of Groundnuts Pudding

Main Article Content

Hermann Arantes Kohole Foffe
Gires Boungo Teboukeu
Fabrice Djikeng Tonfack
Cyrille Serge Houketchang Ndomou
Macaire Hilaire Womeni


This study investigates the effect of white and black Piper nigrum and Piper guineense on lipids quality of oil extracted from groundnuts pudding. This work was carried in the Research Unit of Biochemistry, Medicinal plants, Food Sciences, and Nutrition, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Cameroon, between January 2018 and December 2019. The antioxidant activity of these spices was determined. Cooking by steaming of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea) pudding was carried out using groundnuts paste with 0 g, 0.5 g, 1 g, 2 g and 4 g of spices and 30 ml of warm water respectively. Oils were extracted from the prepared groundnuts pudding using a mixture of chloroform and methanol. The lipid quality of oil samples was studied by the determination of the peroxide, P-anisidine, total oxidation, thiobarbituric and iodine values. Results revealed that these spices possess non negligible antioxidant properties. Black Piper nigrum (BPN) presented the highest total phenolic (TPC: 85.00 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (FC: 271.94 mg CE/g) contents. The lowest TPC and FC was observed with the aqueous extract white Piper nigrum (WPN: 52.38 mg GAE/g and 113.32 mg CE/g respectively). The use of these spices in groundnuts pudding preparation contributed to limit the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products of groundnuts pudding oil. It was also observed that white Piper nigrum (WPN) better preserve lipids quality of oils at all concentrations because oil extracted from pudding cooked with 0.5 g, 1 g, 2 g and 4 g presented peroxide values lower than 10 meqO2/kg (2.81 meqO2/kg, 2.99 meqO2/kg, 3.28 meqO2/kg and 5.46 meqO2/kg respectively). In summary these spices especially white Piper nigrum can be used to preserve lipids oxidation during cooking by steaming of groundnuts pudding.

Black Piper nigrum, cooking by steaming, groundnuts pudding, Piper guineense white Piper nigrum

Article Details

How to Cite
Foffe, H. A. K., Teboukeu, G. B., Tonfack, F. D., Ndomou, C. S. H., & Womeni, M. H. (2020). Comparative Study of the Effect of Piper nigrum (White and Black) and Piper guineense on Lipids Quality of Groundnuts Pudding. Asian Food Science Journal, 15(3), 8-20.
Original Research Article


Gunstone F. The chemistry of oils and fats: Sources, composition, properties and uses. Ed Blackwell Publishing, Oxford (UK): Wiley-Blackwell. 2004;304.

Iyéri-Manjeck O, Seignobos C. Production arachidière. In: Atlas de la Province de l’Extrême Nord Cameroun. Planche 16. IRD (Edit). 2000;1-16.

Camas N, Cirak C, Esendal E. Seed yield, oil content and fatty acids composition of safflower Carthamus tintorius grown in Northern Turkey condition. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture. 2007;22:98-104.

Reese G, Lehrer SB. Food allergens in M. Frieri, B Kettelhut (Eds.), Food hypersensitivity and adverse reactions: A practical guide for diagnosis and management: New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1999;69-97.

Jambunathan R, Raju S, Barde S. Analysis of groundnut content by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture. 1993 ;36: 162-166.

Woodroof J. Peanuts production, processing, products. 3th ed. Avi Publishing Company Inc. Westport, Connecticut, USA; 1983.

Anyasor G, Ogunwenmo K, Oyelana O, Ajayi D, Dangana J. Chemical analyses of groundnut (Arachishypogaea) oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;8(3):269-272.

Lee CM, Resurreccion AVA. Predicting sensory attribute intensities and consumer acceptance of stored roasted peanuts using instrumental measurements. Journal of Food Quality. 2006;29(4):319-338

Julia K, Caroline C, Corinne B, Marizel AG, Ana-Paulina B, Michel R, María SSD, Robert S, Anne NS, Françoise G. Antiatherogenic and antitumoral properties of Opuntia cladodes: Inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation by vascular cells, and protection against the cytotoxicity of lipid oxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in a colorectal cancer cellular model. Journal of Physiology Biochemistry. 2015;71(3):557-587.

Cuvelier ME, Maillard MN. Stabilité des huiles alimentaires au cours de leur stockage. OCL. 2012;19(2):125-132.

Shahidi F. Handbook of antioxidants for food preservation. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, UK. 2015;251-285.

Veeriah S, Kautenburger T, Habermann N, Sauer J, Dietrich H. Apple fl avonoids inhibit growth of HT29 human colon cancer cells and modulate expression of genes involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. Molecular Carcinogen 2016; 45:164–174.

Baidez AG, Gomez P, Del Rio JA, Ortuno A. Dysfunctionality of the xylem in Olea europaea L. plants associated with the infection process by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Role of phenolic compounds in plant defense mechanism. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2007;55:3373–3377.

Han XZ, Shen T, Lou HX. Dietary polyphenols and their biological signifiance. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2007;8:950–988.

Asha Devi S, Umasankar EM, Babu S. A comparative study of anti-oxidant properties in common Indian Spices. International research Journal of Pharmacy; 2012.

Bin S, Yizhong Z, Cai M, Sun Harold C. Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. Journal of Agricultural and Foods Chemistry. 2005;53:7749−7759.

Goswami P, Mandal P, Jha P, Misra T, Barat S. Antioxidant activities of different spices on the lipid oxidation of cooked and uncooked fillet of two fish species belonging to the Genus puntius. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 2013;15:737-746.

Fajobi O, Adeniyi Fasakin O, Wilson Oyedapo O, Oluboade. Phytochemicals, antioxidant potentials and 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of Piper guineense (Schumach & Thonn) seed. African Journal of Plant Science. 2017;11(4):99-104.

Dohou N, Yamni K, Tahrouch S, Idrissi-Hassani L, Badoc A, Gmira N. Screening phytochimique d'une endémique ibéro-marocaine, Thymelaealythroides. Bulletin de la société pharmacologique de Bordeaux. 2003;142:61-78.

Bahorun T, Gressier B, Trotin F, Brunete C, Dine T, Vasseur J, Gazin J,

Boizot N, Charpentier J. Méthode rapide d’évaluation du contenu en composés phénoliques des organes d’un arbre foustier. Le cahier des Techniques del’Inra. 2006;79-82.

Mensor L, Menezez F, Leitao G, Reis A, Dos Santos T, Coube C, Leitao S. Screning of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytotherapy Research. 2001;15:127-130.

Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction. Japanese Journal of Nutrition. 1986;44:307–315.

Nagulendran K, Velavan S, Mahesh R, Haseena B. In vitro antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic content of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Journal of Chemistry. 2007;4(3):440-449.

Ratnasari N, Walters M, Tsopmo A. Antioxidant and lipoxygenase activities of polyphenol extracts from oat brans treated with polysaccharide degrading enzymes. Heliyon. 2017;3(7).

Bligh E, Dyer W. A rapid method for total lipid extraction and purification. Canada Journal Biochemistry and Physiology. 1959;37:11-917.

International Dairy Federation Standards. International dairy federation, IDF-Square Vergote 41, Brussels, Belgium, sec. 1991;74A.

AOCS Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Edited by Firestone D, American Oil Chemists’ Society, 5th Ed. AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois, USA; 2003.

Shahidi F, Wanasundara UN. Methods for measuring oxidative stability in edible oils. In Akoh CC, Min DB (Eds). Food Lipids:

Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology. New York: CRC Press. 2008;387-388.

Drapper H, Hadley M. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymololy. 1990; 186:421-431.

Farzana M. Quantification of total phenol and flavonoid content, In vitro investigation of antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect of the seed extract of Piper nigrum Linn (White pepper). Project submitted in the Department of Pharmacy in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Pharmacy. Brack University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2016.

Kim I, Choe E. Oxidative stability and antioxidant content changes in roasted and bleached sesame oil during heating. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2004;13:762–767.

Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant capacity of 26 spices extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2005;53:7749-7759.

Hall C. Structure-activities of natural antioxidants. In Antioxidant Methodology. In vivo and in vitro. Concepts, Ed. by Aruoma, OI and Cuppett, SL, AOAC press: Champaign, IL. 1997;241.

Pietta P. Flavonoids as antioxidants. Journal of Natural Product. 1998;63:1035-1042.

Marfak A, Sanchez M. Methods used to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity in foods and biological systems. Food Science and Technology International. 2002;3:80.

Katalinic V, Milos M, Jukic M. Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chemistry. 2006;94:550–557.

Gayatri N, Sahu R. Phytochemical evaluation and antioxidant activity of Piper cubeba and Piper nigrum. Journal of Appliied Pharmaceutical Science. 2011;(8): 153-157

Ojimelukwe PC, Ukom AN. Microbial and antioxidant activities of some common spices from Southeast Nigeria. Journal of Applied Life sciences International. 2017; 13(4):1-10.

Masuda H, Hironaka S, Yoko M, Saori H, Mami H, Yushi H, Makoto A, Hitomi K. Comparative study of the antioxidative activity of culinary herbs and spices and hepatoprotective effects of three selected lamiaceae plants on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats. Food Science and Technology Research. 2015; 21(3):407-418

Kahouli I. Effet antioxydant d'extraits de plantes (laurus nobilis l. rosmarinus officinalis, origanum majorana, oléa europea l.) dans l'huile de canola chauffée. Mémoire de Master, Université Laval Québec, Canada. 2010;16-52.

CODEX STAN-211 (Commission du Codex Alimentarius). Norme pour les graisses animales portant un nom spécifique. Rome, Italie. 2015;7.

Choe E, Min DB. Mechanisms of antioxidants in the oxidation of foods. Comprehensive Revue of Food Science. Food Safety. 2009;8:345-358.

Dhartiben B, Kapadiya B, Kishorkumar D. Spices and herbs as a source of natural antioxidants for food. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;(5):280-288.

Milda, Ambuscado. Spices and herbs: Natural sources of antioxidants. Journal of Functional Foods. 2015;9.

Shermer WD. Effects of oxidation on the quality of ingredients and feed of poultry. 37º Maryland Nutrition Conference. Maryland, United State of America; 1990.

Yanjun Z, Susanne M, Henning R, Jianjun H, Alona Z, Zhaoping L, David He. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking. International Journal Foods Science and Nutrition. 2015;66(3): 260–265

Ibrahium I, Abd El-Ghany E, Ammar S. Effect of clove essential oil as antioxidant and antimicrobial agent on cake shelf life. World Journal of Dairy and Food Science. 2013;8:140-146.

Mc ginely L. Analysis and quality control for processing and processed fats. In: Rossell JB and Pritchard JLR, Eds., Analysis of Oilseeds, Fats and Fatty Foods, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, United States of America. 1991;460–470.

Roman O. Mesure et prédiction de la réactivité des lipides au cours du chauffage d’huiles végétales à haute température. Thèse de Doctorat Agro Paris Tech, Institut des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l’Environnement, Paris. 2012;168.

Gray J. Measurement of lipid oxidation: A review. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 1978;55:539-546.

Laguerre M, Lecomte J, Villeneuve P. Evaluation of the ability of antioxidants to counteract lipid oxidation: Existing methods, new trends and challenges. Lipid Research. 2007;46:244–282.

Zhang Y, Yang L, Zu Y, Chen X, Wang F, Liu F. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants; 2010.

Penchalaraju M, Lavanya D, Shwetha M. Natural antioxidants to reduce the lipid oxidation process of meat and meat products: A review. Inter- national Journal of Chemical Studies. Food Chemistry. 2017;5(5):1450- 1458.

Tynek M, Hazuka Z, Pawlowicz R, Dudek M. Changes in the frying medium during deep frying of food rich in proteins and carbohydrates. Journal of Food Lipids. 2001;8: 251-261.