Main Article Content
Aim: To investigate the preservative efficiency of Ocimum gratissimum or its extracts on yoghurt.
Study Design: Ten yoghurt samples were prepared, furthermore, nine (9) samples were treated with scent leaf in different forms at different concentrations.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria, between September 2015 and June 2016.
Methodology: Yoghurt was prepared from instant filled milk while Direct Vat Inoculum (DVI) was used as the starter culture. Proximate and phytochemical analyses were carried out following standard procedures. Sensory evaluation was carried out using a 15-man panelist with a seven point hedonic scales and results were statistically analyzed using IBM® SPSS 21.0, at 0.05 probability level. pH and microbial analysis were conducted while bacterial characterization involved biochemical tests and isolation of probable microorganisms employed morphological and structural characteristics.
Results: Result for proximate analysis indicated differences in the nutritional composition of the raw milk and yoghurt (control). Moisture content increased considerably from 10.00% to 69.75%, while a reduction in protein content was reported (8.7% - 4.95%). The lipid content classified the produced yoghurt as a low-fat yoghurt, and expectedly, the carbohydrate content reduced from 58.20% - 22.30%. Phytochemical screening of the different forms of scent leaf indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids, in different concentrations. Sensory scores showed that the panelists preferred yoghurt formulated with 3 mL of squeezed scent leaf extract. pH values decreased with storage period, while microbial load ranged between 0.5× 104 – 2.0 × 104, where Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Bacillus, S. aureus, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter, and Proteus spp. were isolated.
Conclusion: The yoghurt samples formulated with squeezed scent leaf extracts had the best organoleptic acceptance, while the sample treated with 3 mL had the lowest microbial load, hence, it can be inferred that the squeezed scent leaf extracts had the best preservative effect.
Tsevdos N. Yoghurt – A food production wiki for public health professionals. Food Source Information; 2019.
(Accessed on 27th March, 2020)
Pothuraju R, Yenuganti RV, Hissain SA, Sarma M. Immunity and inflammation in health and disease. Emerging roles of nutraceuticals and functional foods in immune support. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. Shampa Chatterjee, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr, and Debasis Bagchi (Ed) 2nd Edition. 2018;433–439.
Vinderola CG, Mocchiutti P, Reinheimer J. Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria used for fermented dairy product. Journal of Dairy Science. 2002;85(4):721–729.
Fellows PJ. Food processing technology: Principles and practice, 2nd Edition. Woodland Publishing, Cambridge, UK; 2000.
Chandan RC, Kilara A. Dairy ingredients for food processing. John Wiley and Sons. 2010;1-10.
Clark M. Creamy homemade yogurt recipe. NYT Cooking; 2017.
(Accessed on 19th March, 2018)
Shah N. Yogurt- the product and its manufacture. Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition. Benjamin Caballero (Ed) 2nd Edition. 2003;6252–6259.
Marona D, Pedrigon G. Yoghurt feeding inhibits promotion and progression of cancer. Medical Science Monitor. 2004;10: 96–104.
Weerathilake WADV, Rasika DMD, Ruwanmali JKU, Munasinghe MADD. The evolution, processing, varieties and health benefits of yogurt. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(4):1-10.
Cousim MA. Presence and activity of psychrotrophic microorganisms in milk and dairy products: A review. Journal of Food Protection. 1982;45:172-207.
Muhammed B, Abubakar M, Adigbola T. Effect of period and condition of storage on properties of yoghurt produced from cow milk and soy milk materials. Research Journal of Dairy Science. 2009;3(2):18-24.
Rajapaksha DSW, Kodithuwakku KAHT, Silva KFST, RATNL. Evaluation of potassium sorbate and Ε-polylysine for their inhibitory activity on post-acidification of set yoghurt under cold storage for 20 days. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2013;3(6):1-7.
Louis CAM, Regneir TJC, Korstein L. Medicinal plant of South Africa and their traditional relevance in the control of infectious diseases. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology. 2002;82:147–154.
Calixto JB. Efficacy, safety and quality control, marketing regulatory guidelines for herbals (phytotherapeutic agents). Brazilian Journal of Medical Biological Resources. 2000;33:179–189.
Okigbo RN, Ogbonnanya OU. Anti-fungal effects of tropical plant extract of Ocimum gratissimum on post-harvest yam Dioscorea spp rot. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(9):727-731.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Beltsville, Germplasm. Resource Information Network; 2019.
Akinjogunola OJ, Adegoke AA, Udokang IP, Adebayo-Tayo B. Antimicrobial potential of Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) against wound pathogens. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009;3(3):138-141.
Schreiner M, Huyskens-Keil S. Phyto-chemicals in fruits and vegetables. Critical Reviews in Plant Science. 2006;25:267-278.
Jumare FM. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of Nigerian indigenous Ocimum gratissimum Linn (Clove Scented Basil Leaves). Journal of Science, Technology, and Education (JOSTE). 2018;6(4):338–344.
Kin A, Yaki LM, Abubakar I, Olusola FL, Zubairu R. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) on some pathogenic gastrointestinal bacteria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2018;12(40):923-929.
Alexander P. Phytochemical screening, and mineral compositions of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent Leaf). International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 2016;4(2):161– 165.
Udochukwu U, Omeje FI, Uloma IS, Oseiwe FD. Phytochemical analysis of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum extracts and their antibacterial activity on some drug-resistant bacteria. American Journal of Research Communication. 2015;3(5):225-235.
Opara A, Egbuobi R, Dike J, Ndubim E, Onyewuchi C, Nnodim J. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum (Nchu-Anwu) and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf). British Biotechnology Journal. 2014;4(10):1115-1122.
Tamine AY, Robinson K. Yoghurt science and technology. Published by Institute of Applied Science. 2004;32-56.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 19th Edition, Washington, DC. 2013;589-590.
Okwu DE. Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two Nigerian medicinal plants. International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences. 2005;1(4):375–381.
Oladosu-Ajayi RN, Dienye HE, Ajayi CT, Erinie OD. Comparative screening of phytochemical compounds of scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) and Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina); 2017.
Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical methods. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2001;8:203–208.
Ladipo MK, Doherty VF, Kanife UC. Phytochemical screening & anti-bacterial investigation of the extract of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) on selected Enterobacteriaceae. Publish of Nassarawa State. 2010;6(2):75-84.
Granato D, Masson ML, Ribeiro CB. Sensory acceptability and physical stability evaluation of a prebiotic soy-based dessert developed with passion fruit juice. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Campinas. 2012;32(1):119-125.
A.P.H.A. Standards methods for examination of dairy products, Public Health Association, Inc., Washington, DC, USA, 16th Edition; 2004.
Carpenter PC. Microbiology, 4th Edn. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 1977; 401-402.
Ahmad J. Quality characteristics of plain yoghurt made from standardizes Buffalo milk. M.Sc Thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; 1994.
Ehirim FN, Ndimantang BE. Production and evaluation of yoghurt from cow - soy milk blends. Journal of Agriculture and Food Science. 2004;4(2).
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Specifications for yoghurt, not-fat yogurt and low-fat yogurt. Document 21 CFR. 2001;Part 131:200-203.
Oladipo IC, Atolagbe OO, Adetiba TM. Nutrition evaluation and microbiological analysis of yoghurt produced from full cream milk, tiger-nut milk, skimmed milk, and fresh cow milk. Pensee Journal. 2014;76:30-38.
Idris S, Iyaka YA, Ndamitso MM, Paiko YB. Nutritional composition of the leaves and stems of Ocimum gratissimum. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS). 2011;2(5): 801-805.
Prabhu KS, Lobo R, Shirwaikar AA, Shirwaikar A. Ocimum gratissimum: A review of its chemical, pharmacological and ethnomedicinal properties. The Open Complementary Medicine Journal. 2009;4: 122-125.
Savage GP. Saponins: In Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition). 2003;5095-5098.
Robertson S. What are flavonoids? News Medical Life Sciences. 2018;1-5.
Tedeschi E, Menegazzi M, Yao Y, Suzuki H, Forstermann U, Kleinert H. Green tea inhibits human inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression by down-regulating signal transducer and activator of transcription-1alpha activation. Molecular Pharmacology. 2004;64:111–120.
Karou D, Savadogo A, Canini A, Yameogo S, Montesano C, Simpore J. Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(12):1452-1457.
Fernandez LS, Sykes ML, Andrews KT, Avery VM. Antiparasitic activity of alkaloids from plant species of Papua Guinea and Australia. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2010;36(3):275- 279.
Chung KT, Wong TY, Wei CI, Huang YW, Lin Y. Tannins and human health: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1998;38(6):421- 464.
Tomovska J, Gjorgievski N, Makarijoski B. Examination of pH, titratable acidity and antioxidant activity in fermented milk. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;A6(11-12):326–333.
Ehirim FN, Onyeneke EN. Physico – chemical and organoleptic properties of yoghurt manufactured with cow milk and goat milk. Natural and Applied Sciences. 2013;4(4):245-252.
Ologbuyiro JAO, Oseh JE. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of market yoghurt in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2011;10(10):914-918.
McGlynn W. The importance of food pH in commercial canning operation. Food Technology Fact Sheet.
(Accessed on 12th May 2020)
Masuli D. Measuring pH of yoghurt. Food Quality and Safety. 2016;1-4.
(Accessed on 12th May 2020)
Oladimeji TE, Iyi-Eweka E, Obanla RO, Odigure JO. Effect of incubation temperature on the physical and chemical properties of yoghurt. 3rd International Conference on African Development Issues. 2016;100–102.
Oboh G, Akindahunsi. Change in the ascorbic acid, total phenol and anti-oxidant activity of sundried commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Nigeria. Nutrition and Health. 2004;18:29–36.
Osuagwu GGE, Nwosu M. The effect of inorganic fertilizer (N.P.K.) alkaloids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, and tannin contents of Ocimum gratissimum (Nchanwu), Gongronema latifolium (Utazi). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment. 2006;8(2):148-155.
Kolawole S, Obueh H, Ukacki A. Antibacterial effect of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum on some bacteria that cause opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Science. 2018;6(2):1-5.
Schroder MJA. Origins and levels of post pasteurization contamination of milk in the dairy and their keeping quality. Journal of Dairy Research. 1984;51(1):59–67.
I.D.F. Cultured dairy foods in human nutrition. International Dairy Foundation, Doc. No. 159; 1983.
Matin A, Banik T, Badsha R, Hossain A, Haque M, Ahmad M. Microbiological quality analysis of yoghurt in some selected areas of Bangladesh. International Journal of Natural and Social Sciences. 2018;5(4):82-86.
Moh LG, Keilah LP, Etienne PT, Jules-Roger K. Seasonal microbial conditions of locally made yoghurt (Shalom) marketed in some regions in Cameroon. International Journal of Food Science. 2017;1-16.
Frazier WC, Westhoff DC. Food microbiology, 3rd Edition. McGraw Hill Company, New York. 1978;382-385.
Kabiru YA, MAkun HA, Saidu AN, Muhammed LH, Nuntah LC, Amoo SA. Soymilk preservation using extracts of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum myrtaceae) and Guinea-Pepper (Xylopia aethiopica annonaceae). Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2012;3(5):44-50.
Brasil, Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecu aria e Abastecimento Resolucao, no5 de13 de novembro de 2000. Officializar os padroes de identidade e qualidade de leites fermentados. Dairio officialda Uniao; 2000.
Rajagopal M, Werner BG, Hotchkiss JH. Low pressure CO2 storage of raw milk: Microbiological effects. Journal of Dairy Science. 2005;88(9):3130-3138.
Fleet GH. Yeasts in dairy products. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 1990;68(3):199-211.
Rohm H, Lechner F, Lehner M. Microflora of Austrian natural-set yoghurt. Journal of Food Protection. 1990;53(6):478-480.
Abdel Hameed KG. Evaluation of chemical and microbiological quality of raw goat milk in Qena province. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2011;57(129):131-141.
Foschino R, Garzaroli C, Ottogalli G. Microbial contaminants cause swelling and inward collapse of yoghurt packs. Lait. 1993;73(4):395–400.
Canganella D, Ovidi S, Paganini S, Vettraino AM, Bevilacqua L, Trovatelli LD. Survival of undesirable micro-organisms in fruit yoghurts during storage at different temperatures. Food Microbiology, 1998;15(1):71-77.
Oyeleke SB. Microbial assessment of some commercially prepared yoghurt retailed in Minna, Niger State. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3(5):245-248.