Evaluation of Nutritional Composition and Sensory Attributes of Breadfruit-Soybean Flour Blends for Complementary Foods

Main Article Content

S. O. Arinola
T. P. Ojo
J. O. Akinmolayan
A. O. Kehinde

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to produce complementary foods from locally available, underutilized and inexpensive food materials (breadfruit and soybean), to assess their nutrients value and evaluate their sensory acceptability. Breadfruit and soybean flours were mixed in ratios 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 (w/w) respectively. Proximate and mineral compositions of the blends were determined using standard analytical methods; energy value was estimated using the Atwater factor. The blends were prepared for sensory evaluation by cooking with the addition of vegetable oil and sucrose and then subjected to sensory evaluation using a commercial complementary food as control. The crude protein, crude fat, ash and crude fiber contents increased significantly with increased inclusion of soybean flour from 5.36 to 22.02 g/100 g, 1.03 to 6.03 g/100 g, 1.06 to 2.55 g/100 g and 4.77 to 5.86 g/100 g respectively while carbohydrate content reduced from 81.81 to 55.24 g/100 g. The energy value ranged from 357.97 to 363.31 kcal/100 g. The samples contained 66.74 - 76.50 mg/100 g sodium, 687.43 – 725.65 mg/100 g potassium, 64.00 – 103.04 mg/100 g calcium, 145.76 – 242.51 mg/100 g phosphorus, 4.80 – 9.98 mg/100 g iron and 3.18 – 4.61 mg/100 g zinc. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that 70:30 complementary food was the most preferred and acceptable in terms of all the sensory attributes evaluated and it compared favourably with the control. This sample also showed a promising capacity to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of protein, carbohydrate, potassium, phosphorus, iron and zinc for infants (7 -12 months). This study has shown that complementary food produced from breadfruit and soybean flour has appreciable nutritional density in terms of proximate and mineral compositions and could be used as a substitute for expensive commercial complementary foods especially among families with low income in Nigeria and other developing countries of the world.

Keywords:
Complementary food, breadfruit, soybean, proximate composition, mineral composition, sensory acceptability.

Article Details

How to Cite
Arinola, S. O., Ojo, T. P., Akinmolayan, J. O., & Kehinde, A. O. (2020). Evaluation of Nutritional Composition and Sensory Attributes of Breadfruit-Soybean Flour Blends for Complementary Foods. Asian Food Science Journal, 16(2), 13-21. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i230168
Section
Original Research Article

References

Branca F, Rossi L. The role of fermented milk in complementary feeding of young children: Lesson from transition countries. European Journal of Clinical and Nutritional Science. 2002;56:23–33.

FMOH. Infant and young child feeding in Nigeria – Guidelines, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja Nigeria; 2005.

FAO. Undernourished around the world. In: The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Report of Technical Meeting. Food and Nutrition Series, Rome, Italy. 2004;152–156.

Okoye JI, Egbujie AE. Production and quality evaluation of complementary foods from blends of malted sorghum, soybean and Irish potato flour. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2018;3(3):301–314.

Agiriga AN, Iwe MO. Proximate composition of cookies produced from cassava, groundnut and corn starch blends: A response surface analysis. Nigeria Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2009;27(1):102-107.

Daley OO, Roberts-Nkrumah LB, Alleyne AT, Francis-Granderson I, Broomes J, Badrie N. Assessment of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, (parkinson) fosberg) cultivars for resistant starch, dietary fibre and energy density. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(4):15060–15076.

DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.87.18090

Arinola SO, Akingbala JO. Effect of pre-treatments on the chemical, functional and storage properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) flour. International Food Research Journal. 2018;25(1):109–118.

Ragone D. Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) ver 2.1. In: Elevitch C. R. (Ed) Species Profile for Pacific Island Agro-forestry, Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR) Holualoa, Hawaii; 2006.

Available:www.traditionaltree.org

(Retrieved on November 07, 2015)

Mayaki OM, Akingbala JO, Bacchus-Taylor GSH, Thomas S. Evaluation of breadruit (Artocarpus communis) in traditional stiff porridge foods. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. 2003;1(12):54– 59.

Taghdir M, Mazloomi SM, Honar N, Sepandi M, Ashourpour M, Saleh M. Effect of soy flour on nutritional, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free bread. Food Science and Nutrition. 2017;5:439–445.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.411

Zhao Q, Selomulya C, Xiong H, Chen XD, Li X, Wang S, Bai C, Peng H, Zhou Q, Sun W. Rice dreg protein as an alternative to soy protein isolate: Comparison of nutritional properties. International Journal of Food Properties. 2014;17(8):1791–1804.

DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2012.732167

Ahmad A, Hayat I, Arif S, Masud T, Khalid N, Ahmed A. Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of soybean (Glycine max). International Journal of Food Properties. 2014;17:1332–1354.

Tariqul-Islam AFM, Chowdhury MGF, Islam MN, Islam MS. Standardization of bread preparation from soy flour. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production. 2007;2(6):15-20.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis (15th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington D.C.; 1990.

Noah AD. Nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of complementary food made from maize, plantain soybean blends. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2017;6(12):5421–5428.

Abasiekong KS, Akobundun ENT, Oti E. Chemical, sensory and biological evaluation of maize-bambara nut based complementary foods. Nigerian Food Journal. 2010;28(2):25–31.

Anigo KM, Ameh DA, Ibrahim S, Danbauchi SS. Nutrient composition of commonly used complementary foods in North Western Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(17):4211–4216.

FAO/WHO/UNU. Energy and protein requirements: Report of a joint expert consultation-Food Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organization/ United Nations Universities. WHO Technical Report series No. 724, Geneva. 1985;206.

Fasuan TO, Fawale SO, Enwerem DE, Uche N, Ayodele EA. Physicochemical, functional and economic analysis of complementary food from cereal, oilseed and animal polypeptide. International Food Research Journal. 2017;24(1):275-283.

Olapade AA, Babalola KA, Aworh OC. Evaluation of plantain and cowpea blends for complementary foods. Journal of Agriculture and Food. 2015;3:274–388.

Agostoni C, Riva E, Giovannini M. Dietary fiber in weaning foods of young children. Pediatrics. 1995;96(5):1002-1005.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. Prepublication Edition. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2005.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001.

FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 2002.