Production of Biscuits from Mixture of Tiger Nut Flour, Milk Permeate and Soft Wheat Flour

Main Article Content

Moustafa El- Shenawy
Ahmed M. S. Hussien
Mohamed Tawfeek Fouad

Abstract

This study was carried out to use mixture of permeate and germinated tiger nut flour(GTNF), soft wheat flour(SWF) for production and evaluation of biscuit product. Biscuits made of 100% SWF and permeate was also prepared for comparison. Chemical composition, mixolab parameters, color attributes, baking quality, and sensory properties of biscuits were studied. GTNF was added to SWF at 10,20 and 30% level. Results revealed that GTNF characterized with its higher fiber (5.41%), fat (27.85%) and ash (3.24%).Therefore, increasing mixing level of GTNF with SWF led to increase the nutritional value of biscuits. Mixolab parameters showed that water absorption and dough stability was increased as the percentage of GTNF in SWF increase. Baking quality of biscuits showed that all biscuit samples from mixing GTNF with SWF had lower volume and specific volume than control. Results also showed that Hunter color parameters (L*, a* & b*) of biscuits were darker as mixing level of GTNF increased. This result was confirmed with the obtained sensorial results. Also, the bacteriological parameters were within the permissible bacterial limits, adopted by the Egyptian Standers, until 3-6 months of storage. Moreover, sensory evaluation of biscuits indicated that all treatments were acceptable, moreover mixture contained GTNF had superior nutritional value and could be suitable for child nutrition.

Keywords:
Soft wheat flour, permeate, germinated tiger nut flour, mixolab parameters and biscuits.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shenawy, M. E.-, Hussien, A. M. S., & Fouad, M. T. (2020). Production of Biscuits from Mixture of Tiger Nut Flour, Milk Permeate and Soft Wheat Flour. Asian Food Science Journal, 18(2), 11-21. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i230212
Section
Original Research Article

References

Okarter N, Liu RH. Health benefits of whole grain phytochemicals. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2010;50:193–208.

Gandhi A, Kotwaliwale N, Kawalkar J, Srivastava D, Parihar V, Raghu Nadh P. Effect of incorporation of defatted soy flour on the quality of sweet biscuits. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2001; 38:502-503.

Sudha M, Vetrimani R, Leelavathi K. Influence of fiber from different cereals on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on biscuit quality. Food Chem. 2007;100:1365-1370.

Stark A, Madar Z. The effect of ethanol extract derived from fenugreek on bile acid absorption and cholesterol levels in rats. Br J. Nutr. Jan. 1993;69:277-37.

Adejuyitan JA, Otunola ET, Akande EA, Oladokun FM. Effect of fermentation on the proximate composition of flour produced from Tiger-nut. In the proceedings of 32nd annual Nigerian. Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFST) Conference 13-17 October. 2008;62-63.

Belewu MA, Belewu KY. Comparative physico-chemical evaluation of tiger-nut, soybean and coconut milk sources. International Journal Agric. Biol. 2007;9:785-787.

Ezebor F, Igwe CC, Owolabi FAT, Okoh SO. Comparison of the physico- chemical characteristics, oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of oil and fat of Cyperus esculentus L. (yellow nut sedge) and Butyrospermumparkii (sheanut) from Middle-Belt states of Nigeria. Nigeria Food J. 2005;23:33-39.

Martinez V. Scientific analysis of effects of tiger nut on heart diseases and related aspects. Tiger nut and Health. 2003;102.

Sangronis E, Rodriguez M, Cava R, Torres A. Protein quality of germinated Phaseolus vulgaris. European Food Research and Technology. 2006;222:144-148.

Vidal-Valverde C, Frias J, Sierra I, Blazquez I, Lambein F, Kuo Y. New functional legume foods by germination: Effect on the nutritive value of beans, lentis and peas. European Food Research and Technology. 2002;215:472-477.

Bewley JD, Black M. Seeds: Physiology of development and germination. Plenum Press, New York; 1994.

Ghavidel RA, Prakadh J. The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, anti-nutrients, in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legumes seeds. LWT. 2007;40:1292-1299.

El-Adaway TA. Nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicerarietinum L) undergoing different cooking methods and germination. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2002;57:83-97.

Kaushik G, Satya S, Naik SN. Effect of domestic processing techniques on the nutritional quality of the soybean. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2010;3:39-46.

Abd El-Salam MH, Mahran GA, Haggag HF, Mahfouz MB, Zaglol A. Manufacture and properties of beverages based on fermented permeate and natural fruit juices. Chemie Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebensmittel. 1991;13:95-101.

Chinma CE, Adewuyi O, Abu JO. Effect of germination on the chemical and pasting properties of flour from brown and yellow varieties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus). Food Res. Intern. 2009;42:1004–1009.

AACC. Approved Methods of Analysis. 10thEdn., American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN., USA., ISBN-13: 9781891127120. 2000;1200.

AOAC. Official Methods Of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th Edn., Association of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, MD., USA; 2000.

Hussein AS, Ibrahim GS, Asker MMS, Mahmoud MG. Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus helveticus: Identification of chemical structure and effect on biscuit quality. Czech J. Food Sci. 2010;28:225-232.

Sappers G, Douglas F. Measurement of enzymatic browning at cut surfaces and in juice of raw apple and pear fruits. J. Food Sci. 1987;52:1258–1262, 1285.

Egyptian Standards 416-1/2013.Biscuits and methods of analysis and testing part:1Biscuits .

Egyptian Standards 6454/ 2007: Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs – Horizontal Method for the Enumeration of Microorganisms – Colony – Count Technique at 30°C.

Egyptian Standards 5647 / 2006 Microbiology of Food and Animl Feeding Stuffs- Horizontal Method for The Enumeration of Coliforms – Colony – Count Techniique.

Egyptian Standards 2233/ 2005 Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs – Horizontal Method for the Detection of Salmonella.

Egyptian Standards 6057 – 1 / 2007 Microbiolog of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs – Horizontal Method for The Enumeration of Cogulase – Positive Staphyybcocci ( Staphylococcus aureus and other Species ) Part1 : Technique Using Baird – Parker Agar Medium.

Egyptian Standards 2232 / 2006 Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs –Horizontal Method for Enumeration of Presumptive Bacillus cereus- Colony count Technique at 30 °C.

Egyptian Standards 1793/2005 Cereals, Pulses And Derived Products – Enumeration of Bacteria , Yeasts and Moulds

McClave JT, Benson PG. Statistics for business and economics. Maxwell Macmillan International Editions. Dellen Publishing Co.USA. 1991;272-295.

Hussein AMS, Helmy IMF, Mustafa BE. Effect of barley flour and some of their functional ingredients on quality of pan bread. Minufiya J. of Agric. Res. 2006;31(4):877-897.

Ahmed Zahra S, Hussein AMS. Exploring the Suitability of Incorporating Tiger Nut Flour as Novel Ingredient in Gluten-Free Biscuit. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2014; 64(1):27-33.

Okoye GI, Ene JI. Effects of Processing on Nutrient and Anti -Nutrient contents of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus Lativum). Journal of Food Technology and Food Chemistry. 2018;1(1):1-7.

Izydorczyk MS, Hussain A, MacGregor AW. Effect of barley and barley components on rheological properties of wheat dough. J. Cereal Sci. 2001;34:251-260.

Dhaka V, Gulia N, Khatkar BS. Application of mixolab to assess the bread making quality of wheat varieties. 2012;1:183.

DOI: 10.4172 / scientificreports183

Capouchová I, Papoušková L, Kostelanská M, Prokinová E, Škeříková A, Hajšlová J, Konvalina P, Faměra O. Effect of different intensities of Fusariuminfestationon grain yield, deoxynivalenol content and baking quality of winter wheat. Romanian Agricultural Research. 2012;29:297-306.

Collar C, Santos E, Rosell CM. Significance of dietary fibre on the viscometric pattern of pasted and gelled flour-fiber blends. Cereal Chemistry. 2006;83:370-376.

Ballesteros LF, Teixeira JA, Mussatto SI. Chemical, functional and structural properties of spent coffee grounds and coffee silverskin. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2014;7:3493-3503.

El-Shebini SM, Hussein AMS, Moaty MIA, Mohamed MS, Ahmed NH, Hanna LM, Tapozada ST. Metabolic syndrome: Potential benefit from specific nutritional dietary therapy. J. Applied Sci. Res. 2013;9:1940-1951.

Kim YS, Ha TY, Lee SH, Lee HY. Effect of rice bran dietary fiber on flour rheology and quality of wet noodles. Korean, Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1997;20:90-95.

Kordonowy RK, Young VL. Utilization of durum bran and its effect of spaghetti. Cereal Chemistry. 1985;62: 301.306.

Ramy A, Salama MF, Shouk AA. Pollards a potential source of dietary fiber for pasta manufacture. Egypt Journal of Food Science. 2002;30:313-330.

Oladipo IC, Ogunsona SB, Ojekanmi OS, Adegoroye AO. Microbial and Nutritional Evaluation of Biscuits Produced from Wheat and Quality Protein Maize Flour. Wjpls. 2019;5(1):05-11.

Agu HO, Okoli NA. Physico-chemical, sensory, and microbiological assessments of wheat-based biscuit improved with beniseed and unripe plantain. Food Science & Nutrition. 2014;2(5):464–469.