Main Article Content
The production and determination of the nutritional properties of cookies produced by partial substitution of margarine with avocado pear pulp was studied. Well cleaned avocado pear was blended into paste and used to substitute margarine in the prepared cookies. The ratio of avocado pear pulp substituted was 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The substituted products and the control (100% margarine) were subjected to physicochemical and sensory evaluation. The results of the proximate analysis showed that the protein content ranged from 6.93% -7.83% with sample A having the highest protein content and fat content. Moisture content and ash content of samples were seen to be higher in sample E (50:50 ratio). Sample A had the least value of moisture, ash and crude fibre with moisture content of 11.13%, ash content of 1.40% and crude fibre value of 0.29%, while sample E recorded the least value of crude fat (16.00%). The carbohydrate content was recorded to be higher in sample C. The physical properties showed that cookies made with higher avocado pear pulp had less thickness compared to the control cookies. The sensory evaluation results showed that sample A had the highest values of 8.05%, 7.85% and 7.95% for appearance, taste and aroma respectively while sample E (50:50 ratio) had the least values in crunchiness, taste and aroma. The overall acceptability of the results showed that sample A recorded the highest value but not significantly different (p<0.05) from sample B (80:20 margarine avocado). The research concluded that the partial substitution of avocado improved the nutritional value of the cookies by lowering the saturated fat content.
IFIS. International Food Information Service. Dictionary of food science and technology. Oxford, UK. Blackwell Publishing. 2005;106.
Dembitsky VM. The multiple nutrition properties of some exotic fruits: Biological activity and active metabolites. Food Research International. 2011;44:1671-1701.
Santos MAZ. Profile of bioactive compounds in avocado pulp oil: Influence of dehydration temperature and extraction method. Journal of the American Oil Chemical Society. 2015;91:19-27. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11746-013-2289-x DOI: 10.1007/s11746-013-2289-x
WHO/FAO. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: Report of a joint World Health Organization and Food and Agricultural Organization, WHO/FAO expert consultation; 2003.
Hurs H, Martin J. Carbohydrate and beyond: The health benefits of inulin. Cereal Food World. 2005;50:57-60.
Bleinroth EW, Castro JV. Materia prima. In: ITAL. Abacatecultura, material-prima, processamentoe aspectos economicos. 2Ed. Serie Frutas Tropicais. Campinas: ITAL, Cap. 1992;2:58-147.
Santos MAZ. Profile of bioactive compounds in avocado pulp oil: Influence of dehydration temperature and extraction method. Journal of the American Oil Chemical Society. 2007;23(17):341-355.
Christensen R, Bartels EM, Astrup A. Symptomatic efficacy of avocado- soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16(4):399-408.
Soares HF, Ito MK. The monounsaturated fatty acids from avocado in the control of dyslipidemia. Revista Ciências Médicas. 2000;9(2):47-51.
Soliva RC. Evaluation of browning effect on avocado purée preserved by combined methods. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 2001;1(4):261-270. DOI: 10.1016/ S1466-8564(00)00033-3
Nnaji JC, Okereke OB. Proximate composition and physico-chemical properties of three avocado (Persea americana) varieties in Umuahia, Nigeria. Journal; 2016.
Navder K. Effect of avocado fruit puree and oatrim as fat replacers on the physical, textural and sensory properties of oatmeal cookies. Journal of Food Quality. 2008; 31(2):131-141.
Mannay S, Shadaksharaswany CM. Foods: Facts and principles. (2nd ed). New Delhi, India. New Age International Publishers; 2005.
ASEAN. ASEAN manual of food analysis. Regional Centre of ASEAN Network of Food Data System, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand; 2011.
Santos MAZ. Influence of preparing process of pulp and extraction method in the oil yield of fortuna avocado. Higiene Alimentar. 2013;27:3776-3779.
Mensink RP. Effect of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and apopoproteins: A meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;2(11):20-22.
Mahawan MA, Tenorio FN, Gomez JA, Bronce RA. Characterization of flour from avocado seed kernel. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2015;3(4): 34-40.
Lequesne M, Maheu E, Cadet C. Structural effects of avocado/soybean unsaponi-fiables on joint space loss in osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;47(1): 50-58.