Production of Ready-to-Bake Whole Grain Barley Cake Mix with Improved Quality

Main Article Content

Mokhtar Harb Abd-El- Khalek


Due to the busy and fast paced lifestyle in modern times, the demand for healthy and ready-to-cook foods has increased to a great extent. In the present study, ready-to-bake whole grain barley cake mix formulas were developed by the use of different additive (i.e. carboxymethyl cellulose CMC, maltodextrin and emulsifier), and were assessed with the aim of achieving nutritional benefits, shorter preparation times and improved cake quality.  Results showed that incorporation of the aforementioned additives into the dry mix formulations led to the production of cakes with lower fat content and caloric value (up to 7.1%) less than the control cake, with improved physical characteristics such as higher volume and specific volume. Texture profile analysis showed an enhancement in cake textural properties such as lower hardness, springiness and chewiness. Sensory evaluation of test cakes demonstrated a general improvement in sensory attributes like cell structure, crumb grain and softer texture. Flavor of cakes in which 100% of fats was replaced by maltodextrin received significantly lower score. However, and in term of total sensory score, most of the developed cake mix formulas had significantly higher sensory scores than their control counterpart.

Barley, cake, maltodextrin, CMC, quality.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khalek, M. H. A.-E.-. (2020). Production of Ready-to-Bake Whole Grain Barley Cake Mix with Improved Quality. Asian Food Science Journal, 18(3), 24-33.
Original Research Article


Incoronato AL, Gammariello D, Conte A, Del Nobile,MA. Ready-to-cook fresh meal: study for shelf life prolongation. Journal of food science and technology. 2016;53(2):990-995.

Tripathi J, Gupta S, Kumar V, Chatterjee S, Variyar PS, Sharma A. Processing food for convenience: challenges and potentials. BARC Newslett. 2011;322(5):55-60.

McGarry J. What you need to know about “ready to cook” foods. Michigan State University Extension; 2017. Available: (Last accessed 10 July 2020)

Dhir B, Singla N, Jain R. Relationship between consumption of convenience foods and health status of the working women. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2020;39(3): 87-94.

Ross AB, Kamp J, King R, Lê K, Mejborn H, Seal C. Perspective: A definition for whole-grain food products: Recommendations from the Health grain Forum. Advances in Nutrition. 2017; 8(4): 525-531.

USDA. World Agricultural Production. Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, USA. 2020.

Baik BK. Current and potential barley grain food products. Cereal Foods World. 2016;61(5): 188-196.

Izydorczyk MS, McMillan T. Barley β-Glucans and β-Glucan-Enriched Fractions as Functional Ingredients in Flat and Pan Breads. In: V.R. Preedy, R.R. Watson (eds). Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention. Academic Press, Elsevier Inc. 2019;347-363).

Conforti FD. Cake manufacture. In: W. Zhou (ed). Bakery products science and technology. John Wiley & Sons. Ltd., UK. 2014;565-584.

Cauvain SP, Young LS. More baking problems solved. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK. 2009;128-149.

Psimouli V, Oreopoulou V. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties. Journal of Food Science. 2013;78(10):C1495-C1502.

Lakshminarayan SM, Rathinam V, KrishnaRau L. Effect of maltodextrin and emulsifiers on the viscosity of cake batter and on the quality of cakes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2016;86(5):706-712.

Saha D, Bhattacharya S. Hydrocolloids as thickening and gelling agents in food: a critical review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010;47(6):587-597.

Selomulyo VO, Zhou W. Frozen bread dough: Effects of freezing storage and dough improvers. Journal of Cereal Science. 2007;45(1):1-17.

Salehi F. 2020. Effect of common and new gums on the quality, physical, and textural properties of bakery products: A review. Journal of texture studies. 2020;51(2):361-370.

Jia C, Huang W, Ji L, Zhang L, Li N, Li Y. Improvement of hydrocolloid characteristics added to angel food cake by modifying the thermal and physical properties of frozen batter. Food Hydrocolloids. 2014;41:227-232.

Mir NA, Gul K, Riar CS. Technofunctional and nutritional characterization of gluten‐free cakes prepared from water chestnut flours and hydrocolloids. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2015;39(6):978-984.

Shao YY, Lin KH, Chen YH. Batter and product quality of eggless cakes made of different types of flours and gums. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2015;39(6):2959-2968.

Lee CC, Hoseney RC, Varriano-Marston E. Development of a laboratory-scale single-stage cake mix. Cereal Chemistry. 1982;59(5):389-392.

AACC. Approved Methods of Analysis of AACC international. St. Paul, MNY, USA; 2010.

Lim J. Hedonic scaling: A review of methods and theory. Food quality and preference. 2011; 22(8):733-747.

SAS. Statistical Analysis System User’s Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA; 1999.

USDA. Dietary guidelines for Americans: 2015-2020, 8th edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and US. Department of Agriculture; 2015. Available: (Last accessed: 10 July 2020)

Gómez M, Ronda F, Caballero PA, Blanco CA, Rosell CM. Functionality of different hydrocolloids on the quality and shelf-life of yellow layer cakes. Food Hydrocolloids. 2007;21(2): 167-173.

Sahagún M, Bravo-Núñez Á, Báscones G, Gómez M. Influence of protein source on the characteristics of gluten-free layer cakes. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2018;94:50-56.

Pycarelle SC, Bosmans GM, Nys H, Brijs K, Delcour A. Stabilization of the air-liquid interface in sponge cake batter by surface-active proteins and lipids: A foaming protocol based approach. Food Hydrocolloids. 2020;101105548.

Gómez M, Del Real S, Rosell CM, Ronda F, Blanco CA, Caballero PA. Functionality of different emulsifiers on the performance of breadmaking and wheat bread quality. European Food Research and Technology. 2004;219(2):145-150.

Ronda F, Gómez M, Caballero PA, Oliete B, Blanco CA. Improvement of quality of gluten-free layer cakes. Food Science and Technology International. 2009;15(2):193-202.

Orthoefer F, Kim D. Applications of Emulsifiers in Baked Foods. In: G.L. Hasenhuettl and R. Hartel (eds) Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications. 3rd edition. Springer International Publishing. 2009;299-321.