Main Article Content
Turmeric rhizomes are exposed to a variety of conditions during processing such as boiling, cooking, blanching and drying before being utilized. In this study, the effect of processing methods on the functional properties and physicochemical properties of turmeric powder was investigated. Fresh turmeric rhizomes were processed into powder and five samples generated from the turmeric powder: Sample A (oven drying), sample B (blanching + oven drying), sample C (sun drying), sample D (cooking + oven drying). The processed turmeric powders were subjected to functional and physicochemical analysis using standard methods. Results obtained showed that cooking/oven drying resulted to a significant (p<0.05) improvement in the bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities and swelling power of the turmeric powders as compared to other processing methods. Dispersibility and solubility were greatly improved on sun drying/oven drying. Among the processing methods employed, blanching/oven drying exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher colour value and curcumin content whereas decreases in TTA and pH was observed for cooked/oven dried sample. It is therefore recommended from the study that blanching/oven drying be used in the processing of turmeric powder for better nutrient retention. For better functionality of the turmeric powder, cooking/oven drying method should be employed.
Jilani MS, Waseem K, Habib-Ur-Rehman M. Performance of different turmeric cultivars in DeraIsmail Khan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science. 2012;49: 47-55.
Taoheed AA, Tolulope AA, Saidu AB, Odewumi OG, Sunday RM, Usman, M. Phytochemical properties, proximate and mineral composition of Curcuma longa Linn and Zinger officinale Rosc: A comparative study. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. 2007;13(4):1-7.
Ahaotu EO, Lawal M. Determination of proximate and minerals content of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) leaves and Rhizomes. Journal of Food, Nutrition and Packaging. 2019;6:1-4.
Ikpeama A, Onwuka GI, Nwankwo C. Nutritional composition of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its antimicrobial properties. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2014;5(10):1085-1089.
Gopinathan NM, Singh SH, Chitra KU. In vitro antiplatelet activity-ethanolic extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. Journal of Indian Business Research. 2011;2(2): 138‐142.
Peter KV. Informatics on turmeric and ginger. India Spices. 2000;36(2,3):12 - 14.
Emelike NJT, Akusu MO, Ujong AE. Antioxidant and physicochemical properties of oils extracted from cashew (Anarcadium occidentale) kernels. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2017;2(6):122-128.
Ganiy ORA, Kolawole OF, Fadeke WA. Effect of sucrose and binary solution on osmotic dehydration of bell pepper (chilli) (Capsicum spp) varieties. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010;47:305-309.
Duarte Y, Chaux A, Lopez N, Largo E, Ramı ́rez C, Nun ̃ez H, Vega O. Effects of blanching and hot air drying conditions on the physicochemical and technological properties of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Var. Flavicarpa) by-products. Journal of Food Processing Engineering. 2017;40(3):e12425. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12425
Suresh P, Hanumanthappa M, Srinivasan K. Effect of heat processing of spices on the concentrations of their bioactive principles: Turmeric (Curcuma longa), red pepper (Capsicum annum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2007;20(3-4): 346-351. Available:https://doi.org.10.1016/j.jfca.2006.10.002.
Bambirra MLA, Junqueira RG, Glória MBA. Influence of postharvest processing conditions on yield and quality of ground turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2002; 45(4):423-429.
Kulkarni KD, Kulkarni DN, Ingle UM. Sorghum malt-based weaning formulation, preparation, functional properties and nutritive Values. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1991;13(4):322-327
Narayana K, Narasinga Rao Ms. Effect of partial proteolysis on the functional properties of winged pea (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) flour. Journal of Food Science. 1984;49:944-947.
Sosulski FN. The centrifugal method for determining flour absorptivity chemistry. State University Ames, Iowa. 1962;39:344-346
Takashi S, Seib PA. Paste and gel properties of prime corn and wheat starches with and without native Lipids. Cereal Chemistry. 1988;65:474-475.
Soni H, Patel SS, Govind N, Ak S. Qualitative and quantitative profile of curcumin from ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2010;2(4):180-184.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th edition, Washington D.C; 2000.
Tsegaye GA, Duguma S. The effect of blending ratio and cooking temperature on the quality of weaning foods preparation from Bulla, chickpea and banana flour. Science Research. 2020;8(2):45-51. Available:https://doi.org.10.11648/j.sr.20200802.13.
Igbokwe CJ, Akubor PI, Mbaeyi-Nwaoha IE. Effect of processing on the chemical compoisition, phytochemical contents and functional properties of yellow fleshed aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) flour. Innovare Journal of Food Science. 2016; 4(4):1-4.
Udensi A, Eke O. Proximate composition and functional properties of flour produced from Mucana cochinensis and Mucuna utle. In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Conference of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Abia State University. 2000;170-174.
Khalid EK, Babiker EE, Tinay AHEL. Solubility and functional properties of sesame seed proteins as influenced by pH and/or salt concentration. Food Chemistry. 2003;82:36-366.
Obatolu VA, Fasoyiro SB, Ogunsumi L. Effect of processing on functional properties of yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). Food Science and Technology Resource. 2001;7(4):319-322.
Kinsella JE. Functional properties of proteins in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1976;1(3): 219-280.
Adebowale KO, Olu O, Olawumu EK, Lawal S. Functional properties of native, physically and chemically modified breadfruit (Artocarpus artilis) starch. Industrial Crops and Products. 2004;21: 343-351. Available:https://doi.org.10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.05.002
Eke-Ejiofor J, Nwiganale L. The effect of variety and processing methods on the functional and chemical properties of rice flour. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2016;5(1):80-84. Available:https://doi.org.10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160501.2.
Elkhalifa AEO, Bernhardt R. Some physicochemical properties of flour from germinated sorghum grain. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013; 50(1):186-190. Available:https://doi.org.10.1007/s13197-011-0315-2.
Tsado AN, Lawal B, Santali ES, Shaba AM, Chirama DN, Balarabe MM, Jiya AG, Alkali HA. Effect of different processing methods. Journal of Nutritional Composition of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina). 2015;5(6): 08-14.
Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated Food Science and Technology for Tropics. MacMillan Education Ltd. London; 1985.
Falade KO, Okafor CA. Physicochemical, functional, and pasting properties of flours from corms of two cocoyam (Colocosia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) cultivars. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(6):3440-3448.
Li Y, Zhao M. Simple methods for rapid determination of sulphite in food products. Food Control. 2006;17(12):975-980.
Akyildiz A, Ocal ND. Effects of dehydration temperatures on colour and phenoloxidase activity of amasya and golden delicious apple cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2006;86(14):2363-2368. Available:https://doi.org.10.1002/jsfa.2624.
Ngoma K, Mashau M, Silungwe H. Physicochemical and functional properties of chemically pretreated Ndou sweet potato flour. International Journal of Food Science. 2019;4158213. Available:https://doi.org.10.1155/2019/4158213.
Raza A, Ali A, Yusof YA, Awan AN, Muneer S. Effect of different drying treatments on concentration of curcumin in raw Curcuma longa L. Food Research. 2018;2(6):500-504. Available:https://doi.org.10.26656/fr.2017.(6).109.
Ogunjobi MAK, Ogunwolu S. Physiochemical and sensory properties of cassava flour supplemented with cashew apple powder. Journal of Food Technology. 2010;(1):4-29. Available:https://doi.org.10.3923/jftech.2010.24.29.
Tetchi FA, Solomon OW, Celah KA, George AN. Effect of cassava variety and fermentation time on biochemical and microbiological characteristics of raw artisanal starter for Attieke production. Innov Roman Food Biotech. 2012;10(3): 40-47.
Akoja SS, Coker OJ. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties of wheat flour biscuit incorporated with okra powder. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;3(5):64-70.