New Insight in the Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Amaranthus tricolor L. Leaves Extract in Mice

Main Article Content

Nusrat Jahan
Md. Rabiul Hossain
Muhammad Kamal Hossain
Md. Rashadul Alam
Shimul Das

Abstract

Aims: The present study was planned to assess the sedative and anxiolytic efficacy of Amaranthaus tricolor L methanolic extract in vivo.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, between January 2018 and August 2018.

Methodology: In this experiment, the crude extract of Amaranthus tricolor L. was evaluated for its CNS depressant effect using rodent behavioral models, such as open field, hole cross and rota rod tests for its sedative properties and an elevated plus maze test for its anxiolytic potential, respectively.

Results: In sedative assay, a dose-dependent and statistically significant (p<0.05) suppression of locomotors activity of the mice in both open field and hole cross test was exhibited by theextract at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The extract also displayed increased percentage of entry into open arms at both doses in anxiolytic potential study. At a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight significant anxiolytic activity (p<0.05) was found compared to the standard diazepam.

Conclusion: The pivotal CNS depressant and anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L leaves was discovered in this experiment. Further research on the extract's biologically active phytochemicals may provide access to therapeutic intervention.

Keywords:
Amaranthus tricolor L, anxiolytic, elevated plus maze, sedative

Article Details

How to Cite
Jahan, N., Hossain, M. R., Hossain, M. K., Alam, M. R., & Das, S. (2020). New Insight in the Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Amaranthus tricolor L. Leaves Extract in Mice. Asian Food Science Journal, 19(4), 16-24. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i430245
Section
Original Research Article

References

Stein DJ, Hollander E, Rothbaum BO. Textbook of anxiety disorders. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2009.

Eisenberg JM. Health services research in a market-oriented health care system. Health Aff. (Millwood). 1998;17:98-108.

Kunovac JL, Stahl SM. Future directions in anxiolytic pharmacotherapy. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 1995;18:895–909.

Cryan JF, Lucki I. Antidepressant like behavioral effects mediated by hydroxyl tryptaminereceptors. The Journal of Pharmacology Experimental Therapeutics. 2000;295:1120–6.

Dhingra D, Sharma A. Review on antidepressant plants. Natural Products Radiance. 2005;144–52.

Prut L, Belzung C. The open field as a paradigm to measure the effects of drugs on anxiety-like behaviors: A review. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;463:3–33.

Pál C, Phil S, Beer B, Lippa A. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, doubleblind, randomized study of efficacy and safety of ocinaplon (DOV 273, 547) in generalized anxiety disorder. CNS NeurosciTher. 2010;16(Suppl 2):63–75.

Masoumeh E, Mohammad K, Maryam Fath A. Coriandrumsativum: Evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze. J Ethno Pharmacol. 2005;96:365–70.

Uzun S, Kozumplik O, Jakovljević M, Sedić B. Side effects of treatment with benzodiazepines. PsychiatriaDanubina. 2010;22(1):90-3.

Nisar B, Sultan A, Rubab SL. Comparison of medicinally important natural products versus synthetic drugs-a short commentary. Nat Prod Chem Res. 2018;6(2):308.

Tareen NM, Saeed-ur-Rehman MA, Shinwari ZK, Bibi TA. Ethnomedicinal utilization of wild edible vegetables in district Harnai of Balochistan province-Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 2016;48(3):1159-71.

Yuan H, Ma Q, Ye L, Piao G. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products. Molecules. 2016; 21(5):559. Published 2016 Apr 29.

Srivastava R. An updated review on phyto-pharmacological and pharmacognostical profile of Amaranthus tricolor: A herb of nutraceutical potentials. The Pharma Innovation. 2017;6(6, Part B):124.

Velez-Jimenez E, Tenbergen K, Santiago P, Cardador-Martínez MA. Functional attributes of Amaranth. Austin Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2014;2(1):1-6.

Aneja S, Vats M, Sardana S, Aggarwal S. Pharmacognostic evaluation and phytochemical studies on the roots of Amaranthus tricolor (Linn.). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2011;2(9):2332.

Barua A, Hossain R, Banik P, Sultana R, Absar N, Hossain R. In vivo sedative and anxiolytic potential in mice for methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia. Trends in Applied Sciences Research. 2019;14:193-8.

Sultana T, Mannan MA, Ahmed T. Evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity of methanolic extract of Commelina diffusa Burm. in mice. Clinical Phytoscience. 2018;4(1):5.

Yadav G, Garg VK, Thakur N, Khare P. Locomotor activity of methanolic extract of Saracaindica bark. Adv. Biol. Res. 2013;7:1-3.

Doukkali Z, Taghzouti K, Bouidida EH, Nadjmouddine M, Cherrah Y, Alaoui K. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of methanolic extract of Urtica urens in a mice model. Behavioral and Brain Functions. 2015;11(1):19.

Barua CC, Talukdar A, Begum SA, Borah P, Lahkar M. Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2012;44(1):63.

Murthy CH, Sunil J, Kumar PS, Rajkumar G. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of alcoholic extract from Tephrosia pumila (l.) Pers. World J Pharm Sci. 2017;6:1648-50.

Thirupathy KP, Tulshkar A, Vijaya C. Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn. Pharmacognosy Res. 2011; 3(3):194-200.

Mansur RM, Martz W, Carlini EA. Effects of acute and chronic administration of Cannabis satis and (-) 9-trans tetrahydrocannabinaol on the behaviour of rats in open field arena. Psychopharmacol. 1980;2:5-7.

Rakotonirina VS, Bum EN, Rakotonirena A, BopeletM. Sedative properties of the decoction of the rhizome of Cyperus anticulatives. Fitoterapia. 2001;72:22-29.

Dhonnchadha BAN, Bourin M, Hascoet M. Anxiolytic-like effects of 5-HT2 ligands on three mouse models of anxiety. BehavBrainRes. 2011;140:203-214.

Subramanian N, Jothimanivannan C, Kumar RS, Kameshwaran S. Evaluation of anti-anxiety activity of Justicia gendarussa burm. Pharmacologia. 2013;4(5):404-407.

Dunham NW, Miya TSA. A note on a simple apparatus for detecting neurological deficit in rats and mice. J Am Pharm Assoc.1957;46(Suppl 3):208–9.

Perez RM, Perez JA, Garcia LM, Sossa H. Neuropharmacological activity of Solanumnigrum fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62(Suppl 1):43–8.

Amos S, Adzu B, Binda L, Wambebe C, Gamaniel K. Neuropharmacological effect of the aqueous extract of Sphaeranthus senegalensis in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78(Suppl 1):33–7.

Braestrup C, Squires RF. Specific benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain characterized by high-affinity (3H) diazepam binding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1977; 74(9):3805-9.

Rao KN, Padhy SK, Dinakaran SK, Banji D, Avasarala H, Ghosh S, Prasad MS. Pharmacognostic, phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity evaluation of Amaranthus tricolor linn. Leaf. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2012;24(1):455.

Pulipati S, Babu PS, Narasu ML. Quantitative determination of tannin content and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Amaranthus tricolor (L). Int J Biol Pharm Res. 2014;5:623-6.

Khanam UK, Oba S. Bioactive substances in leaves of two amaranth species, Amaranthus tricolor and A. hypochondriacus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 2013;93(1):47-58.

Biswas M, Dey S, Sen R. Betalains from Amaranthus tricolor L. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2013;1(5).

Wagner H, Ott S, Jurcic K, Morton J, Neszmelyi A. Chemistry, 13C-NMR study and pharmacology of two saponins from Colubrina asiatica. Plantamedica. 1983; 48(07):136-41.

Kahnberg P, Lager E, Rosenberg C, Schougaard J, Camet L, Sterner O, Nielsen EØ, Nielsen M, Liljefors T. Refinement and evaluation of a pharmacophore model for flavone derivatives binding to the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2002;45(19):4188-201.

Awad R, Ahmed F, Bourbonnais-Spear N, Mullally M, Ta CA, Tang A, Merali Z, Maquin P, Caal F, Cal V, Poveda L. Ethnopharmacology of Q’eqchi’Maya antiepileptic and anxiolytic plants: Effects on the GABAergic system. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009;125(2):257-64.

Estrada-Reyes R, López-Rubalcava C, Rocha L, Heinze G, González Esquinca AR, Martínez-Vázquez M. Anxiolytic- like and sedative actions of Rollinia mucosa: Possible involvement of the GABA/ benzodiazepine receptor complex. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2010; 48(1):70-5.