Influence of Compounds Contents and Particle Size on Some Functional Properties of Moringa oleifera Leaves (Lam) Powders

Main Article Content

Assiéné Agamou Julien Armel
Fombang Nig Edith
Mbofung Carl Moses


Objective: This study aims to determine the influence of the contents of compounds and particle size on the functional properties of leaves powders of M. oleifera.

Methodology: The leaves were collected from three farms in the localities of Mbouda and Maroua and processed in powders. The proximate composition, some functional properties such as particle size, true Water Absorption Capacity (WACt), apparent Water Absorption Capacity (WACa), Water Solubility Index (WSI), Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), and Bulk density were determined.

Results: The mean contents of young and mature leaves powders are 24.96 ± 0.29 and 23.13 ± 0.50 g/100 DM in total proteins; 34.26 ± 0.52 and 29.11 ± 1.44 g/100g DM in available carbohydrate, 8.34 ± 0.64 and 8.34 ± 0.68 g/100g DM in total lipids, 8.75 ± 0.74 and 9.08 ± 0.48 g/100g DM in total ash, 21.13 ± 1.34 and 27.14 ± 1.04 g/100g DM in total fibers, respectively. The particle size of powders is majority large. The fiber's contents significantly affect the increase of rehydration properties and the OHC, while the large particle size, the density. Values of WACt and WACa are 27.02 ± 0.20 and 32.88 ± 1.24 % in young leaves and 28.98 ± 0.15 and 35.88 ± 1.02 % in mature leaves, respectively. The WSI and OHC are 3.02 ± 0.06 and 257 ± 1% in young leaves and 3.5 ± 0.04 and 261 ± 2 % in mature leaves, respectively. The Bulk density is 0.42 ± 0.01 g/ml in young leaves and 0.39 ± 0.01 in mature leaves.

Conclusion: Functional properties of M. oleifera leave powders do not always depend on the contents of compounds and particle size distribution.

Moringa oleifera leaves powders, contents of the compounds, particle size, functional properties.

Article Details

How to Cite
Armel, A. A. J., Edith, F. N., & Moses, M. C. (2021). Influence of Compounds Contents and Particle Size on Some Functional Properties of Moringa oleifera Leaves (Lam) Powders. Asian Food Science Journal, 20(1), 60-71.
Original Research Article


Njintang NY, Mbofung CMF, Balaam F, Kitissou P, Scher J. Effect of taro (Colocasia esculenta) flour addition on the functional and alveographic properties of wheat flour and dough. 2008;279:273–9.

Rodríguez-miranda J, Ruiz-lópez II, Herman-lara E, Martínez-sánchez CE, Delgado-licon E. Development of extruded snacks using taro (Colocasia esculenta) and nixtamalized maize (Zea mays ) flour blends. LWT - Food Sci Technol [Internet]. 2011;44(3):673–80.

Fombang Nig E, Assiéné Agamou JA, Mbofung Carl MF. Incorporation of ricinodendron heudolotti meal into blends of wheat and precooked taro flour for production of nutrient dense biscuits. 2016;3(2):1–7.

Nsor-Atindana J, Chen M, Goff HD, Zhong F, Sharif HR, Li Y. Functionality and nutritional aspects of microcrystalline cellulose in food. Carbohydr Polym [Internet]. 2017;172:159–74.

Assiéné Agamou JA, Fombang Nig E, Mbofung Carl MF. Particular benefits can be attributed to Moringa oleifera LAM leaves based on origin and stage of maturity. J Exp Biol Agric Sci. 2015;3(2320):541–55.

Assiéné Agamou AJ, Fombang Nig E, Mbofung Carl M. In vitro protein digestibility and iron bioavailability according to agro-ecological zone and stage of maturity of moringa oleifera Lam leaves. Eur J Nutr Food Saf. 2020;12(11):90–103.

Fahey JW. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medicinal potential. Acta Hortic. 2017;1158:209–24.

Abouel-Yazeed A. Usage of moringa leaves as a component in some Foodstuff. J Food Dairy Sci. 2019;10(10):365–71.

Zhu F, Du B, Xu B. Super fi ne grinding improves functional properties and antioxidant capacities of bran dietary fi bre from Qingke ( hull-less barley ) grown in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau , China. J Cereal Sci [Internet]. 2015;65:43–7.

Huang X, Liang K, Liu Q, Qiu J, Wang J, Zhu H. Industrial Crops & Products Superfine grinding a ff ects physicochemical, thermal and structural properties of Moringa Oleifera leaf powders. Ind Crop Prod [Internet]. 2020;151:112472.

Deli M, Petit J, Nguimbou RM, Djantou EB, Njintang Yanou N, Scher J. Effect of sieved fractionation on the physical , flow and hydration properties of Boscia senegalensis Lam, Dichostachys glomerata Forssk . and Hibiscus sabdariffa L . powders. 2019;28:1375–89.

Helrich. Official Methods of Analysis. In: Association Of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc 15th edition, Suite 400, 2200 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia 22201, USA; 1990.

Fischer EE, Stein A. DNS colorimetric determination of available carbohydrates in foods. Biochem Prep. 1961;8:30–7.

Wolff JP. Manuel d’analyse des corps gras. Azoulay éd., Paris. 1968;519.

Melcion JP. La granulométrie de l’aliment: Principe, mesure et obtention. Prod Anim. 2000;13(2):81–97.

Phillips RD, Chinnan MS, Branch AL, Miller J, McWatters KH. Effects of Pretreatment on Functional and Nutritional Properties of Cowpea Meal. J Food Sci. 1988;53(3): 805–9.

Beuchat LR. Functional and Electrophoretic Characteristics of Succinylated Peanut Flour Protein. J Agric Food Chem. 1977;25(2):258–61.

Adebowale YA, Adeyemi IA, Oshodi AA. Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna species. African J Biotechnol. 2005;4(12):1461–8.

Aboubakar. Optimisation Des Paramètres De Production Et De Conservation De La. Nancy-Université, INPL,France; Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun. 2009;212.

Castillo-López RI, León-Félix J, Angulo-Escalante MÁ, Gutiérrez-Dorado R, Muy-Rangel MD, Heredia JB. Nutritional and phenolic characterization of Moringa oleifera leaves grown in Sinaloa, México. Pakistan J Bot. 2017;49(1):161–8.

Aye P, Adegun M. Chemical Composition and some functional properties of Moringa, Leucaena and Gliricidia leaf meals. Agric Biol J North Am. 2013;4(1):71–7.

Mune Mune MA, Bakwo Bassogog CB, Nyobe EC, René Minka S. Physicochemical and functional properties of Moringa oleifera seed and leaf flour. Cogent Food Agric [Internet]. 2016;2(1):1–9.

Sahay S, Yadav U, Srinivasamurthy S. Potential of Moringa oleifera as a functional food ingredient: A review. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017;2(5):31–7.

Olusanya RN, Kolanisi U, Onselen A Van, Ngobese NZ, Siwela M. South African Journal of Botany Nutritional composition and consumer acceptability of Moringa oleifera leaf powder ( MOLP ) -supplemented mahewu. South African J Bot [Internet]; 2019.

Galla NR, Pamidighantam PR, Karakala B, Gurusiddaiah MR, Akula S. Nutritional, textural and sensory quality of biscuits supplemented with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Int J Gastron Food Sci [Internet]. 2017;7:20–6.

Glover-Amengor M, Aryeetey R, Afari E, Nyarko A. Micronutrient composition and acceptability of Moringa oleifera leaf-fortified dishes by children in Ada-East district, Ghana. Food Sci Nutr. 2017; 5(2):317–23.

Oladeji OA, Taiwo KA, Gbadamosi SO, Oladeji BS, Ishola MM. Studies on Chemical Constituents and Nutrients Bioavailability in Moringa oleifera Leaf and Seed. J Sci Res Reports. 2017;14(1):1–12.

Abdullah MMH, Gyles CL, Marinangeli CPF, Carlberg JG, Jones PJH. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: A cost-of-illness analysis. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59.

Goff HD, Repin N, Fabek H, El Khoury D, Gidley MJ. Dietary fibre for glycaemia control: Towards a mechanistic understanding. Bioact Carbohydrates Diet Fibre [Internet]. 2018;14:39–53.

Caicedo-Lopez L, Luzardo-Ocampo I, Cuellar-Nuñez ML, Campos-Vega R, Mendoza S, Loarca-Piña G. Effect of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on free-phenolic compounds and mono/oligosaccharides from Moringa oleifera leaves: Bioaccessibility, intestinal permeability and antioxidant capacity. Food Res Int; 2018. [Internet]. #pagerange#.

Barchechath J. Étude du potentiel nutraceutique des fibres de canneberge et de bleuet. Université de LAVAL, France. 2014;129.

Kumar KS, Ganesan K, Selvaraj K, Rao PVS. Studies on the functional properties of protein concentrate of Kappaphycus alvarezii ( Doty ) Doty – An edible seaweed. FOOD Chem [Internet]. 2014;153:353–60.