Evaluation of Chemical, Physical and Functional Properties of Extruded Snacks from Blends of Acha Grain, Jackbean and Pawpaw Pormace Flours
Asian Food Science Journal,
Aims: To produce protein and fibre enriched extruded product that can be used as a protein supplement by combining legumes, cereal and fruits, evaluate the proximate properties of the snacks, evaluate anti-nutritional factors in the snacks, assess the functional properties of the flour blends, determine the physical properties of the extruded snacks, evaluate the quality and sensory properties of the snacks produced, carry out the mineral content analysis of the extruded products.
Methodology: Acha flour (A), Jack bean flour (J) and Pawpaw flour (P) were produced and blended to give various ratios of AAA (100% Acha, 0% jackbean, 0% pawpaw pomace), AJP (70% Acha, 20% Jackbean, 10% pawpaw), APJ (70% Acha,10% Jack bean, 20% pawpaw), AJN (70% Acha, 30% Jackbean, 0% Pawpaw), ANP (70% Acha, 0% Jack bean, 30% Pawpaw). These composite flour blends were used to produce extruded snacks and were analyzed for their proximate, minerals, anti-nutritional contents, and sensory properties, functional and physical properties. The analysis were carried out in triplicates for all the five formulations. The result obtained from the analysis were statistically analysed using SPSS 16.0 defined at (P < 0.05).
Results: Protein content ranged from 10.92% to 6.98% with ANP having the highest and low in AAA, Carbohydrate content also ranged from 83.76% to 79.40%, high in AJP and lower in ANP, AAA had the highest moisture content of 3.88% and low in AJP 2.66, Fat content was high ANP (4.41%) and low in AJN and AJP (3.00%), APJ has the highest fibre content of (3.60%) and lower in AJN (1.18%) Ash was high in AAA and low in AJP (2.89% and 1.59%) respectively. The tannin content ranged between 0.18 to 0.36mg/g with ANP to be the highest, phytate content ranged between 0.25mg/g to 0.63mg/g. Saponin content ranged from 0.35 to 0.73mg/g with ANP to be the highest among them. As for the functional properties, the bulk density ranged between 0.84 - 0.92g/ml with the control samples (AAA) having the highest value and the lowest value was observed in sample AJP. Water absorption capacity and Oil absorption capacity ranged between 0.88 – 3.5% and 1.33 – 2.33% respectively. Physical properties of the extruded snacks; bulk density ranges between 0.23 – 0.38% with sample AAA having the highest value and ANP being the lowest, Apparent density, Lateral expansion and Porosity ranged between 0.36 – 0.62%, 79 – 130% and 0.47 – 0.81% respectively. All the five formulations have no significant difference in there sensory attributes. Mineral content, Potassium content was high in ANP (203.75mg/100g) and low in AJP (148.75mg/100g), Calcium was high in ANP (576.25mg/100g) and low in AAA (435.50mg/100g), Magnessium was high in ANP (208.25mg/100g) and low in AAA (208.25mg/100g).
Conclusion: Inclusion of pawpaw pomace and Jackbean to the composite increased (p<0.05) the protein and Mineral content of the product, when compared with the control. Based on the nutritional values and sensory attributes, AJP and ANP snacks could be recommended as an appropriately enriched snack product.
- pawpaw pomace
- proximate composition
- anti-nutritional factor
How to Cite
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