Physical and Sensory Properties of Bread Made with Wheat and Fermented Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Flours
Asian Food Science Journal,
Aim: The study was conducted to determine the effect of fermented finger millet flour supplementation in wheat on the physical and sensory properties of bread.
Methodology: Finger millet grains were cleaned, washed and fermented in deionized water for 72 h at room temperature (27±2oC), with sampling at every 24 h interval. Fermented grains were washed, drained, dried (65oC, 4 h), milled and sieved (<250 µm) to produce Fermented Finger Millet Flour (FFMF). Composite flour was formulated by supplementing wheat flour with Fermented Finger Millet Flour (FFMF) at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % (w/w), and used to produce bread samples. Physical (Oven spring, loaf weight, loaf volume and specific volume) and sensory (crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste, mouth feel and overall acceptability) properties of the bread samples were determined.
Results: Physical properties showed less oven spring, loaf volume and specific loaf volume and increased loaf weight with increased FFMF replacement. The sensory analysis showed significant differences (p<0.05) between 100% wheat bread and FFMF supplemented samples in all the determined sensory properties. It was concluded that fermentation period of 24-48 h, and substitution of 5-10% FFMF into wheat gave the bread samples with the best overall acceptability.
- Finger millet
- finger millet flour
- wheat flour
- anti-nutritional factors
- antioxidant activity
- composite flour
- physical properties
- sensory evaluation
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