Physicochemical, Functional and Pasting Properties of Garri Fortified with Soybean Flour
Asian Food Science Journal,
Aim: This study evaluated the physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of garri fortified with soybean flour.
Methodology: Soybean flour was incorporated into the garri prior to garrification at a ratio of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% for samples A, B, C, D and E respectively. Sample without soybean flour served as control. Standard analytical procedure was used in the evaluation of all six samples.
Results: The pH and titratable acidity (TTA) of the samples varied respectively, from 4.59 - 6.48 and 0.08 - 0.17 % lactic acid. There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in pH with increase in soybean flour, while the reverse was the case for TTA. Swelling power, bulk density and water absorption capacity of the soybean fortified garri ranged from 8.74 - 17.81%, 0.60 - 0.80 g/ml and 13.44 – 19.43 % respectively. Control sample (100% garri) had hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content of 1.50 mg HCN/100g while samples with soybean flour had no detectable levels. Peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity and setback varied significantly (P<0.05) from 101.19 - 399.44, 90.92 - 320.19, 10.28 - 79.25, 123.19 - 451.50 and 32.28 - 131.31 RVU respectively. Peak time and pasting temperatures ranged from 5.18 – 6.34 min and 74.28 – 92.88 oC.
Conclusion: The study revealed that a good quality garri can be produced with the incorporation of soybean flour up to 50%, the garri is safe for consumption as there was no HCN detected, and the decrease in viscosity provides for a soft textured, mouldable garri that is convenient for swallow.
- soybean flour
- hydrogen cyanide
- functional and pasting properties.
How to Cite
Awoyale W, Oyedele H, Adenitan AA, Alamu EO, Maziya-Dixon B. Comparing the functional and pasting properties of gari and the sensory attributes of the eba produced using backslopped and spontaneous fermentation methods, Cogent Food Agric. 2021;7(1):1883827.
Ouwamanam CI, Ogueke CI, Achinewuu SC, Barimala IS. Quality characterization of garri as affected by pre-ferment liquor, temperature and duration of fermentation. Am J Food Technol. 2011;6:374-384.
Meraz M, Shirai K, Larralde P, Revah S. Studies on the bacterial acidification process of cassava (Manihot esculenta). J Sci Food Agric. 1992;60(4):457-463.
Abass AB, Dziedzoave NT, Alenkhe BE, James BD. Quality management manual for the production of Gari. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture IITA, Enugu; 2012.
Adeleke RO, Odedeji JO. Functional properties of wheat and sweet potato flour blends. Pak. J. Nutr. 2010;9:535-564.
Sedaghati E and Hokmabadi H 2014 Safety of Food and Beverages: Oilseeds and Legumes, In: Motarjemi Y, editor. Encylopedia of Food Safety. Academic press Vol 3.331-339; 2014.
Agengo FB, Serrem C, Wamunga F. Evaluation of protein nutritional quality of four soybean varieties grown in western Keenya. J Food Res. 2018;7(5):6-9.
Obinna-Echem PC, Barber L, Confidence E. Proximate composition and sensory properties of complimentary food-formulated from malted pre-gelatinized maize, soybean and carrot flours. J Food Res. 2018;7(2):17- 24.
Okaka JC. Food composition, spoilage and shelf life extension. Organco Academic pulishers. 2001;233-234.
AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official methods of analysis, 19th edition, Washington D.C., USA; 2012
Ayo JA, Adedeji OE, Ishaya G. Phytochemical composition and functional supported by properties of flour produced from two varieties of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). FUW Trends Sci Technol J. 2015;1(1):261-266.
Mbofung CMF, Abuobakar YN, Njintang A, Abduo Boubak, Balaam F. Physico-chemical and functional properties of six varietes of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) flour. J. Food Technol. 2006;4(2):135-142.
Agbara GI, Ibekwe PC. Effects of melon seed or soybean meal supplementation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of incompletely peeled cassava garri. J Food Technol Res. 2020;7(1):125-135.
Ahaotu I, Ogueke CC, Owuamanam CI, Ahaotu NN, Nwosu JN. Protein improvement in gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2011;14:933-938.
Achinewhu SC, Owuamanam CI. Garrification of five improved cassava cultivars, physiochemical and sensory properties of garri yield. Afri J Root Tuber Crop. 2001;4:18-21.
Achinewhu S, Barber L, Ijeoma I. Physicochemical properties and garification (gari yield) of selected cassava cultivars in rivers state, Nigeria. Plant Food Hum Nutri. 1998;52(2):133-140.
Mburu FW, Swaleh S, Njue W. Potential toxic levels of cyanide in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) grown in Kenya. Afr J Food Sci. 2012;6:416 20.
Chikezie PC, Okey A, Ojiako OA. Cyanide and aflatoxin loads of processed cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria. Toxicol Int. 2013;20 (3):61-267.
Ndife J, Nwaubani O, Aniekpeno IE. Effect of palm oil inclusion on the quality of garri produced from white and yellow cassava (Manihot esculenta cranz) roots. Int J Food Sci Nutri. 2019;4(3):180-185.
Awoyale W, Asiedu R, Kawalawu WKC, Abass A, Maziya-Dixon B, Kromah A, Edet M, Mulbah S. Assessment of the suitability of different cassava varieties for gari and fufu flour production in Liberia. Asian Food Science Journal. 2020;14(2):36–52.
Buckman ES, Oduro I, Plahar WA, Tortoe C. Determination of the chemical and functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban flour for food systems. Food Sci Nutri. 2018;6(2):457–463.
Akume JN, Ariahu CC, Acham IO. Quality evaluation of ready-to-eat garri made from cassava mash and mango fruit mesocarp blends. Asian J Food Sci Technol. 2019;8(3):1-9.
Sanni LO, Adebowale AA, Awoyale W, Fetuga GO. Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos state, Nigeria. Nigerian Food J. 2008;26(1):125-134.
Okolie NP, Brai MN, Atoyebi OM. Comparative study on some selected garri samples sold in Lagos metropolis. J. Food Studies. 2012; 1(1):52-63.
Obinna-Echem PC. Effect of processing method on pasting morphological and sensory properties of Akamu-a Nigerian fermented maize product. Am J Food Sci Technol. 2017;5(3):101–108.
Ikegwu OJ, Nwobasi VN, Odoli MO, Oledinma NU. Evaluation of the pasting and some functional properties of starch isolated from some improved cassava varieties in Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(10):2310–2315.
Ikeagwu OJ, Okechukwu PE, Ekumankana EO. Physio chemical and pasting characteristics of flour and starch from Achi (Brachystegia eurycoma) seed. J. Food Technol. 2010;8(2):58- 66.
Ogueke CC, Ehirim C, Owuamanam CI, Ahaotu I and Olawuni IA. Quality characteristics and HCN in gari as affected by fermentation variables. Int J Life Sci. 2013;2(1):21-28.
Chung H-J, Jeong H-Y, Lim S-T. Effect of acid hydrolysis and defatting on crystallinity and pasting properties of freeze-thawed hugh amylose corn starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2003;54(4):449 – 455.
Sanni LO, Ikumola DO, Sanni SA. Effect of length of fermentation and varieties on the qualities of sweet potato gari. Proceedings of the 8th triennial symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crop, African Branch (ISTRC – AB) (ed. Akoroda, M. O), IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2001;208–211.
Abstract View: 56 times
PDF Download: 26 times