A Review on Factors and Processing Methods Affecting Antihypertensive Properties of Legumes, and Antihypertensive Properties of Selected Legumes
Asian Food Science Journal,
Hypertension is one of the major risk factors which leads to cardiovascular diseases, and the typical treatment for hypertension is drug therapy. However, as there are side effects to drug therapy, there has been an increase in research on legume proteins as biopeptides have shown antihypertensive effects. Many species of legumes have been cultivated for consumption as they are a good source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and dietary fiber. Bioactive compounds of legumes potentially improve factors that affect antihypertensive properties, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity, renin inhibition activity, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production. The processing method of enzymatic hydrolysis can improve ACE inhibition activity, as can be seen with horse gram, pigeon pea, and lentil hydrolysates containing potent ACE inhibitory peptides of Thr-Val-Gly-Met-Thr-Ala-Lys-Phe, Val-Val-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Pro-Arg, and Asn-Ser-Leu-Thr-Leu-Pro-Ile-Leu-Arg-Tyr-Leu, while pigeon pea and kidney bean hydrolysates have shown good renin inhibition activity. Fermentation can also be used to process legumes as potent ACE inhibitory peptide Val-Val-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Pro-Arg was identified from fermented pigeon pea, while kidney beans and lentils demonstrated good GABA production through natural fermentation and fermentation with microbial cultures. The germination processing method could also help improve ACE inhibition activity as horse gram has shown good inhibition activity. In vivo study of pigeon pea, kidney bean, and lentils showed potential antihypertensive properties as a significant lowering of systolic blood pressure of test subject was observed. Research done on the structure and function of antihypertensive properties of legumes can help in the development of functional food products which will be beneficial to human health.
- Antihypertensive property
- bioactive compound
- inhibition activity
How to Cite
Accessed 17 January 2022. Available:https://www.who.int/health-topics/hypertension#tab=tab_1
Aluko RE. Antihypertensive peptides from food proteins. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2015;6(1):235-262.
Foëx P, Sear JW. Hypertension: Pathophysiology and treatment. BJA Educ. 2004;4(3):71-75.
Martínez-Maqueda D, Miralles B, Recio I, Hernández-Ledesma B. (Antihypertensive peptides from food proteins: A review. Food Funct. 2012;3:350-360. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1039/c2fo10192k
Kamran F, Reddy N. Bioactive peptides from legumes: Functional and nutraceutical potential. Radv Food Sci; 2018.
Accessed 17 July 2021. Available:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325463604_Bioactive_peptides_from_legumes_Functional_and_nutraceutical_potential
Graham PH, Vance CP. Legumes: Importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiol. 2003;131(3):872- 877.
De Ron AM. Handbook of Plant Breeding. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2015.
Moreno-Valdespino CA, Luna-Vital D, Camacho-Ruiz RM, Mojica L. Bioactive proteins and phytochemicals from legumes: Mechanisms of action preventing obesity and type-2 diabetes. Int Food Res J. 2020;130:1-66.
Iqbal A, Khalil IA, Ateeq N, Khan MS. Nutritional quality of important food legumes. Food Chem. 2006;97(2):331-335. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.011
Howieson JG, Yates RJ, Foster KJ, Real D, Besier RB. Prospect for the future use of legumes. In: Dilworth MJ, James EK, Sprent JI, Newton WE, editors. Nitrogen-fixing leguminous symbioses. The Netherlands: Springer, Dordrecht; 2008.
Rebello CJ, Greenway FL, Finley JW. A review of the nutritional value of legumes and their effects on obesity and its related co-morbidities. Obes Rev. 2014;15(5):392-407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12144
Mudryj AN, Yu N, Aukema HM. Nutritional and health benefits of pulses. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2014;39(11):1197-1204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0557
Guo F, Zhang Q, Yin Y, Liu Y, Jiang H, Yan N, et al. Legume consumption and risk of hypertension in a prospective cohort of Chinese men and women. Br J Nutr. 2019;123(5):564-573. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519002812
Lee YP, Puddey IB, Hodgson JM. Protein, fibre and blood pressure: potential benefit of legumes. Clin Exp Pharmacol. 2008;5:473-476. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.04899.x
Atlas SA. The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system: Pathophysiological role and pharmacologic inhibition. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2007;13(8):9-20. DOI:https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2007.13.s8-b.9
Akıllıoğlu HG, Karakaya S. Effects of heat treatment and in vitro digestion on the Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of some legume species. Eur Food Res Technol. 2009;229:915-921. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1133-x
Hanif K, Bid HK, Konwar R. Reinventing the ACE inhibitors: some old and new implications of ACE inhibition. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:11-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2009.184
Saleh ASM, Zhang Q, Shen Q. Recent research in antihypertensive activity of food protein-derived hydrolyzates and peptides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;56(5):760-787. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.724478
Nasri M. Protein hydrolysates and biopeptides: Production, biological activities, and applications in foods and health benefits. A review. In: Toldrá F, editor. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. New York: Elsevier; 2017.
Iwaniak A, Minkiewicz P, Darewicz M. Food-originating ACE inhibitors, including antihypertensive peptides, as preventive food components in blood pressure reduction. Compr Rev Food Sci. 2014;13(2):114-134. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12051
Henda YB, Labidi A, Arnaudin I, Bridiau N, Delatouche R, Maugard T, et al. Measuring Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity by micro plate assays: Comparison using marine cryptides and tentative threshold determinations with captopril and losartan. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(45):10685-10690. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf403004e
Udenigwe CC, Mohan A. Mechanisms of food protein-derived antihypertensive peptides other than ACE inhibition. J Funct Foods. 2014;8:45-52. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2014.03.002
Dowd FJ, Jeffries WB. Antihypertensive drugs. In: Frank JD, Barton SJ, Angelo JM, editors. Pharmacology and therapeutics for dentistry. New York: Elsevier; 2017.
Olagunju AI, Omoba OS, Enujiugha VN, Alashi AM, Aluko RE, et al. Antioxidant properties, ACE/renin inhibitory activities of pigeon pea hydrolysates and effects on systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Sci Nutr. 2019;6(7):1879-1889. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.740
Pihlanto A, Mäkinen S. The function of renin and the role of food-derived peptides as direct renin inhibitors. In: Tolekova A, editor. Renin-Angiotensin System – Past, present and future. London: IntechOpen; 2017.
Olsen RW, Li GD. GABA. In: Brady ST, Siegel GJ, Albers RW, Price DL, editors. Basic Neurochemistry: Principles of molecular, cellular, and medical neurobiology. Massachusetts: Academic Press; 2012.
Poojary MM, Dellarosa N, Roohinejad S, Koubaa M, Tylewicz U, Gomez-Galindo F, et al. Influence of innovative processing on γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in plant food materials. Compr Rev Food Sci. 2017;16(5):895-905. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12285
Ma P, Li T, Ji F, Wang H, Pang J. Effect of GABA on blood pressure and blood dynamics of anesthetic rats. Int J Clin Exp. 2015;8(8):14296-14302. PUBMED ID: 26550413.
Rashmi D, Zanan R, John S, Khandagale K, Nadaf A. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA): Biosynthesis, role, commercial production, and applications. Stud Nat Prod Chem. 2018;57:413-452. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64057-4.00013-2
Udeh C, Ifie I, Akpodiete J, Malomo S. Kidney bean protein products as potential antioxidative and antihypertensive alternatives for non-pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes. Sci Afr. 2021;11:693-702. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2021.e00693
Chirinos R, Cerna E, Pedreschi R, Calsin M, Aguilar-Galvez A. Multifunctional in vitro bioactive properties: Antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive of protein hydrolyzates from tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) obtained by enzymatic biotransformation. Cereal Chem. 2020;98(2):423-433. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10382
Ciau-Solís NA, Acevedo-Fernández JJ, Betancur-Ancona D. In vitro renin–angiotensin system inhibition and in vivo antihypertensive activity of peptide fractions from lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), J Sci Food Agric. 2017;98(2):781-786. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8543
Siow HL, Gan CY. Extraction of antioxidative and antihypertensive bioactive peptides from Parkia speciosa seeds. Food Chem. 2013;141(4):3435-3442. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.030
Bhaskar B, Ananthanarayan L, Jamdar SN. Purification, identification and characterization of novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from alcalase digested horse gram flour. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2019;103:155-161. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.12.059
Arise AK, Alashi AM, Nwachukwu ID, Malomo SA, Aluko RE, Amonsou EO. Inhibitory properties of bambara groundnut protein hydrolysate and peptide fractions against angiotensin-converting enzymes, renin and free radicals. J Sci Food Agric. 2016;97(9):2834-2841.
Maleki S, Razavi SH. Pulses’ germination and fermentation: Two bioprocessing against hypertension by releasing ACE inhibitory peptides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;61(17):2876-2893.
Torino MI, Limon RI, Martinez-Villaluenga C, Makinen S, Pihlanto A, Vidal-Valverde C, et al. Antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of liquid and solid-state fermented lentils. Food Chem. 2013;136(2):1030-1037.
Li W, Tao W. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis lwo on the proteolysis and the antioxidative properties of chickpeas. Int J Food Microbiol. 2021;338:1-34.
Xiao Y, Xing G, Rui X, Li W, Chen X, Jiang M, et al. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Cordyceps militaris SN-18 on physicochemical and functional properties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flour. LWT. 2015;63(2):1317-1324.
Mamilla RK, Mishra VK. Effect of germination on antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of legumes. LWT. 2017;75:51-58. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.08.036
Limón RI, Penas E, Martinez-Villaluenga C, Frias J. Role of elicitation on the health-promoting properties of kidney bean sprouts. LWT. 2014;56(2):328-334. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.12.014
Peñas E. Limon RI, Martinez-Villaleunga C, Restani P, Pihlanto A, Frias J. Impact of elicitation on antioxidant and potential antihypertensive properties of lentil sprouts. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015; 70:401-407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-015-0508-3
Handa V, Kumar V, Panghal A, Suri S, Kaur J. Effect of soaking and germination on physicochemical and functional attributes of horse gram flour. J Food Sci Technol. 2017;54:4229-4239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2892-1
Jamdar SN, Deshpande R, Marathe SA. Effect of processing conditions and in vitro protein digestion on bioactive potentials of commonly consumed legumes. Food Biosci. 2017;20:1-11. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2017.07.007
Sreerama YN, Sashikala VB, Pratape VM. Phenolic compounds in cowpea and horse gram flours in comparison to chickpea flour: Evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia and hypertension. Food Chem. 2012; 133(1):156-162. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.011
Odeny DA. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) in Africa. Nat Resour Forum. 2007;31(4):297-305.
Nawaz KAA, David SM, Murugesh E, Murugesan T, Kiran KG, Mahendran R, et al. Identification and in silico characterization of a novel peptide inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Phytomedicine. 2017;36:1-7. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2017.09.013
Lee BH, Lai YS. Wu SC. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea. J Food Drug Anal. 2015;23(4):750-757.
Parmar N, Virdi AS, Singh N, Kaur A, Bajaj R, Rana JC, et al. Evaluation of physicochemical, textural, mineral and protein characteristics of kidney bean grown at Himalayan region. Int Food Res J. 2014;66:45-57.
Mundi S, Aluko RE. Inhibitory properties of kidney bean protein hydrolysate and its membrane fractions against renin, angiotensin converting enzyme, and free radicals. Austin J Nutr Food Sci. 2014;2:1. Accessed 20 July 2021.
Limón RI, Penas E, Torino MI, Martinez-Villaluenga C, Duenas M, Frias J. Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts. Food Chem. 2015;172:343-352. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.084
Ariza-Ortega TJ, Zenon-Briones EY, Castrejon-Flores JL, Yanez-Fernandez J, Gomez-Gomez YM, Oliver-Salvador MC. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effect of bioactive peptides obtained from different varieties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with in vivo antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur Food Res Technol. 2014;239(5):785-794. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-014-2271-3
Biju S, Fuentes S, Viejo CG, Torrico DD, Inayat S, Gupta D. Silicon supplementation improves the nutritional and sensory characteristics of lentil seeds obtained from drought-stressed plants. J Sci Food Agric. 2020;101(4):1454-1466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10759
García-Mora P, Martin-Martinez M, Bonache MA, Gonzalez-Muniz R, Penas E, Frias J, et al. Identification, functional gastrointestinal stability and molecular docking studies of lentil peptides with dual antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activities. Food Chem. 2016;221:464-472. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.087
Hanson M, Zahradhka P, Taylor C. Lentil-based diets attenuate hypertension and large-artery remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(4):690-698. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513002997
Yao F, Sun C, Chang SKC. Lentil polyphenol extract prevents angiotensin II-induced hypertension, vascular remodelling and perivascular fibrosis. Food Funct. 2012;3(2):127-133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C1FO10142K
Abstract View: 64 times
PDF Download: 27 times