Production and Nutritional Charactistics of Gowe Flour, a Traditional Fermented Food Produced from Corn in Benin
Asian Food Science Journal,
The objective of this study is to develop an adequate preservation process for gowé, a fermented paste of germinated maize grains. To do this, drying experiments and physicochemical and nutritional analyzes were carried out. The results of the physicochemical analyzes showed that the pH, the dry matter and the proteins decrease during the fermentation. After 12 hours of fermentation, the dough obtained showed on average a pH of 3.9, an acidity of 13.31%, a moisture content of 67.15% and a protein content of 9.18%. Moreover, the evaluation of the nutritional characteristics revealed that gowé was richer in magnesium than in calcium and iron. In addition, the introduction of the drying system in the gowé production technology made it possible to obtain a product in the form of a biscuit with a pleasant aroma, which was ground by a disc mill to obtain the gowé flour. Analyzes showed that this flour had a pH of 3.95 with a moisture content of 9.7%. It contained proteins, calcium, iron and was richer in magnesium with a content of 73.72mg/100g. Statistical analysis of the data obtained indicated that apart from the dry matter, there was no significant difference (P≤0.05) found between the fermented dough and the gowé flour. This drying technology therefore makes it possible to maximize the nutrients and can therefore be recommended to producers.
- maize grains
How to Cite
Kalui CM, Mathara JM, Kutima PM, Kiiyukia C, Wongo LE. Partial characterization and identification of lactic acid bacteria involved in the production of ikii: a traditional fermented maize porridge by the Kamba of Kenya. Tropical Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2008;4(1):3-15. Available :https://doi.org/10.4314/jtmb.v4i1.35461.
Banon JSB, Bokossa Yaou I, Tchekessi CKC, Bleoussi R, Sachi P, Djogbe A, Assogba K, Bade F, Dahouenon-Ahoussi E, Azopkota P, Mensah GA. Production of Millet-Based (Pennisetum glaucum) Ablo and Sorghum-Based (Sorghum bicolor) Ablo Cultivated in the Republic of Benin. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2017;6(3):276-282. Available :http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.603.030.
Michodjehoun L, Hounhouigan DJ, Dossou J, Mestres C. Physical, chemical and microbiological changes during natural fermentation of gowé, a sprouted sorghum or non-sprouted sorghum from west-Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(6):487-496.
Pallet D. Cereal-based fermented products: Akpan, Gowe, Kenkey, Kishk Sa'eedi. Cirad, Persyst- UMR Qualisud, Avenue Agropolis - 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, The African Food Tradition project revisited by Research ; 2011.
Michodjehoun L. Technical System and Characterization of Gowé, a fermented cereal-based dough. Agricultural Engineer Thesis. FSA/UAC. 2000;75.
Tchekessi CKC. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterizations of a traditional "gowé" paste made from maize in Benin. Master's thesis, FAST / UAC. 2012;75p.
AACC (American Association of Cereals Chemists). Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereals Chemists. 8thed. St Paul. MN. USA. 1984;53. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19890411114.
Nout MJR, Rombouts FM, Havelear A. Effect of accelerated natural lactic fermentation of infant food ingredients on some pathogenic microorganisms. International Journal Food Microbiology 8, 351-361. International Journal Food Microbiology. 1989;8(4):351-361.
Louembe D, Keleke S, Kobawila SC, Nzouzi JP. Variability and improvement of the traditional production technology of fermented maize dough in the Congo. TROPICULTURA. 2004;22(4):211-218.
Tchekessi CKC, Bokossa A, Adigun N, Bleoussi R, Sachi P, Banon J, Agbangla C, Azokpota P, Bokossa YI. Physico-chemical and sensory characterizations of three types of "dèguè", a local fermented drink made from milk in Benin. International Journal of Biosciences. 2014:5(3):36-43. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/5.3.36-43.
Banon SBJ, Bokossa Yaou IP, Tchekessi CKC, Bleoussi R, Sachi P, Djogbe A, Assogba K, Azokpota P, Fiogbe E, Mensah GA. Microbiological and physico-chemical dynamics during the fermentation of the millet-based (Pennisetum glaucum) Ablo and the sorghum-based (Sorghum bicolor) Ablo in the Republic of Benin. International Journal of Biomolecules and Biomedicine. 2017;6(2):1-9.
Vieira-Dalode AG. Fermentation study of sorghum flour for the production of gowé in Benin: physicochemical and microbiological aspects. PhD Thesis, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin. 2008;91.
Mugula JK, Nnko SAM, Narvhus JA, Sorhaug T. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togya, a Tanzanian fermented food. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2002;80:187-199.
Tchekessi CKC, Banon SBJ, Fagbohoun A, Aguenou T, Bouraima A, Sachi SAP, Bleoussi TMR, Djogbe AMA, Assogba TK, Azokpota P, Bokossa Yaou PI. Health and Nutritional Qualities of Drinks Produced in the Beninese Brewery Company and Those Sold on the Benin Market. Asian Food Science Journal. 2021;20(1):40-50. Article no.AFSJ.63928,
Louembe D, Keleke S, Kobawila SC, Nzouzi JP. Lactic acid bacteria from fermented maize dough in the Congo. Tropicultura. 2003;21(1):3-9.
Abstract View: 71 times
PDF Download: 21 times