Production and Quality Evaluation of Selected Spices [Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Garlic (Allium Sativum), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) and Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)]

Sunmonu Basirat Afolake Ojubanire *

Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Sulaiman Semiu Adedayo

Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Agbaje Rafiu

Food Processing and Valuation Addition Programme, World Bank Africa Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Olaoye Mufutau Bade

Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Israel Temitope Christiana

Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

This study investigated the production and quality evaluation of selected spices [Ginger (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum)]. The spices were labeled GP (garlic powder), TP (turmeric powder), CP (cloves powder) and GPW (ginger powder). The samples were evaluated for phytochemicals, β-carotene and minerals using standard procedures. The selected phytochemicals ranged as follows: (24.09 – 986.68 mg/g), phenol (150.85 – 2027.00 mg/g), flavonoids (32.55 – 2186.91 mg/g) and alkaloids (4.49 – 6.16 mg/g). The β-carotene content of samples ranged from 0.04 to 3.50 mg/g. For the selected mineral composition of samples, the results indicated; calcium ranged from 81.16 to 120.43 mg/g, potassium ranged from 129.35 to 815.28 mg/g, magnesium ranged from 10.59 to 160.80 mg/g, iron ranged from 1.01 to 14.86 mg/g and phosphorus ranged from 40.26 to 209.99 mg/g. The cloves powder (CP) had the highest level of tannin and phenol while turmeric powder had the highest β-carotene. Mineral content showed that potassium and calcium was more in ginger than other samples while others were high in turmeric powder.

Keywords: Spices, quality, evaluation, flavonoids, clove, production, powder


How to Cite

Ojubanire, Sunmonu Basirat Afolake, Sulaiman Semiu Adedayo, Agbaje Rafiu, Olaoye Mufutau Bade, and Israel Temitope Christiana. 2022. “Production and Quality Evaluation of Selected Spices [Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Garlic (Allium Sativum), Tumeric (Curcuma Longa) and Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)]”. Asian Food Science Journal 21 (11):38-48. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11595.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Kaefer CM, Milner JA. The role of herbs and spices in cancer prevention. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2008;19:347–361.

Halvorsen, BL, Holte K, Myhrstad, MC, Barikino, I, Hvattum, E, Remberg SF, et al. A systemic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. J Nutr. 2002;132:461-471.

Tchombé, NL, Louajri, A, Benajiba, MH. Therapeutic effects of Ginger. ISESCO Journal of Sc & Technol. 2012;8(14):64-69.

Kushwaha, S, Pathak, V, Tripathi, IP.Phytochemical screening of some herbs; ginger, garlic and onion. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;7(7).

Varunraj S, One KC, Youngwoo S, Don-Shik K. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Polyphenols against Streptococcusmutans. Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 2011;1(3):48-55.

Schwertner H, Rios D. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in ginger-containing dietary supplements, spices, teas, and beverages. Chromatogr B Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008;856:41–47.

Sukajang N, Jongpanyalert B, Chantachum S, Adulyatham P. Effects of sodium ascorbate and drying temperature on active protease of dried ginger. Asian Journal of Food Agro-Industry. 2010;3(01): 52-58.

Douglas, M, Heyes, J, Smallfield, B. Herbs, spices and essential oils. Post-harvest operations in developing countries. Rome, Italy: 2005; UNIDO and FAO.

Tamuno EN. Functional and Physicochemical Properties of Turmeric Powder as Affected by Processing Methods. Asian Food Science Journal. 2020;19(2):1-10.

Kumar D, Tanwar VK. Utilization of clove powder as phytopreservative for chicken nuggets preparation. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research. 2011;2(1):11-14.

Singh R, Verma PK, Singh G. Total Phenolics, flavonoids and Tannin content in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012;1(2)

Singleton VML, Orthofar R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total Phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin ceocalteus reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299-300.

Mahajan RT, Badujar SB. Phytochemical investigations of some laticiferous plants belonging to Khandesh region of Maharashtra. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2008;12:1145–1152.

Harborne, J. Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hall, Ltd London.1973;49-88.

AOAC. Official method of Analysis. 20th Edition, Association of Officiating Analytical Chemists, 2010; Washington, DC.

Harshal P, Mugdha K, Nilesh M, Pravin J, Kavita M. Phytochemical Evaluation and Curcumin Content. Determination of Turmeric Rhizomes Collected from Bhandara District of Maharashtra (India). Med. Chem. 2014;4(8):588-591.

Huzaifa U, Labaran I, Bello AB, Olatunde A. Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs. Report and Opinion. 2014;6(8):1-4.

Abayomi Y, Fagbuaro SS, Fajemilehn SOK. Chemical composition, phytochemical and mineral profile of garlic (Allium sativum). J. Bioscience & Biotech. Discovery. 2018;3(5):105-109.

Ali M, Ibrahim IS. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Garlic (Allium sativum). Lupine Publishers. 2019;4(1):478-482.

Okwu, DE, Emenike, IN. Evaluation of the phytonutrients and vitamin contents of citrus fruits. Int. J. Mol. Med. Adv. Sci. 2006;2(1):1-6.

Adebisi AA, Olumide MD, Akintunde AO. Nutritive value and phytochemical screening of turmeric and clove as a potential phyto-additive in livestock production. Nigerian J. Anim. Sci. 2021; 23(2):142-152.

Bamigboye AY, Adepoju OT, Oladipo PO. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Mineral Content of some Indigenous Spices Retailed in Ibadan, Nigeria. Int.J. Nut. 2020;6(1):20-34.

Akeem, S, Joseph, J, Kayode, R, Kolawole, F. Comparative phytochemical analysis and use of some Nigerian spices. Croatian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition. 2016;11(3-4):145-151.

Yusuf, CS, Evaluation of Phytochemical, Mineral, and Nutrient Content of Ginger (Zingiber officianale) in Mubi. Adamawa State University Journal of Scientific Research. 2019;7(2):41-47.

Lawal, AR, Olayinka, BU, Murtadha, RA, Ayinla, A, Etejere, EO. Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical and Proximate Composition of Allium sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. Nig. J. Basic and App. Sci. 2018;26(2):82-87.

Mustafa, I, Chin, NL, Fakurazi, S, Palanisamy, A. Comparison of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Sun-, Oven- and Freeze-Dried Ginger Extracts. Foods. 2019;(8 456):1–11.

Zheng W, Wang, SY. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J. of Agric. & Food Chem. 2001; 49(11):5165-5170.

Virgili F, Scaccini C, Packer L, Rimbach G. Cardiovascular disease and nutritional phenolics. In: Pokorny, J., Yanishlieva and M. Gordon, (Eds.). Antioxidants in Food. Wood head Publishing Ltd. Cambridge. 2001;87–99.

Akharaiyi FC, Boboye, B. Antibacterial and Phytochemical Evaluation of Three Medicinal Plants. J. Nat. Prod. 2010;3:27-34.

Doughari JII, Iuman IS, Bennade S, Ndakidemi PA. Phytochemicals as chemotherapeutic agents and antioxidants: Possible solution to the control of antibiotic resistant verocytotoxin producing bacteria. J. Med. Plants Res. 2009;3(11):839- 848.

Otunola, GA, Oloyede, OB, Oladiji, AT, Afolayan, AJ. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices – Allium sativum L. Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Capsicum frutescens L. commonly consumed in Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotech. 2010;9(41):6927-6931.

Offei-Okyne R, Patterson J, Walker LT, Verghesem M. Processing Effects on Phytochemical Content and Antioxidative Potential of Ginger Zingiber officale. Food & Nut. Sci. 2015;6:445-451.

Okwu DE, Omodamiro DO. Effect of Hexane extract and phytochemical content of Xylopia aethiopica and Ocimum gratissimum on uterus of guinea pig. Bio-Res. 2005;3(2):40-44.

Princewill-Ogbonna, IL, Ogbonna, PC, Ogujiofor, IB. Proximate Composition, Vitamin, Mineral and biologically Active Compounds Levels in Leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Persea americana (Avocado pea), and Annona muricata (Sour sop). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 2019;23(1):65-74.

Ikpeama, A, Onwuka, GI, Chibuzo, N. Nutritional Composition of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its Antimicrobial Properties. Int. J. Sci. & Eng. Res. 2014;5(10):1085-1089.

Uhegbu, FO, Iweala, EEJ, Kanu, I. Studies on the chemical and antinutritional content of some Nigerian spices. Int. J. Nut. & Met. 2011;3(6):72-76.

Etonihu, AC, Florence, NO, Nweze, CC. Chemical Perspectives on Some Readily Consumed Spices and Food Condiments: A Review. Food Sci. & Quality Mgt. 2013;15:10-21.

Adeosun, AM, Oni, SO, Ighodaro, OM, Durosinlorun, OH, Oyedele, O.M. Phytochemical, minerals and free radical scavenging profiles of Phoenix dactilyfera L. seed extract. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2015;1-6.

Ogori AF, Amove J, Aduloju P, Sardo G, Okpala COR, Bono G, Korzeniowska M. Functional and Quality Characteristics of Ginger, Pineapple, and Turmeric Juice Mix as Influenced by Blend Variations. Foods. 2021;10(525):1-15.

Arike, OO, Thomas, O, Oluremi, KO. Evaluation of micronutrient potentials of seven commonly consumed indigenous spices from Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2013;3(33):122- 126.

Koushik A, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Anderson KE, Buring JE, Smith-Warner SA. Intake of the major carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. Int. J. Cancer. 2006;119(9):2148–2154.

Gräslund S, Nordlund P, Weigelt J, Hallberg BM, Bray J, Gileadi O. Protein production and purification. Nat Methods. 2008;5(2):135.

Taoheed AA, Tolulope AA, Saidu AB, Odewumi OG, Sunday RM, Usman M. Phytochemical Properties, Proximate and Mineral Composition of Curcuma longa Linn. and Zingiber officinale Rosc.: A Comparative Study. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. 2017;13(4):1-7.

Kubinarawa D, Ajoku GA, Enwerem NM. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of 50 medicinal plants from Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotech. 2007; 6(14):1690–1696.

Osabor, VN, Ogar, DA, Okafor, PC, Egbung, GE. Profile of the African bread (Treculla africana). Pak. J. Nutr. 2009; 8(7):1005-1008.

Abil, TA, Onuoha, EN. The chemical constituents of the leaf of Aspilla africana as a scientific backing to its trado-medical potentials. Agricultural Journal. 2011;6:28-30.

Ogori AF, Amove J, Aduloju P, Sardo G, Okpala COR, Bono G, Korzeniowska M. Functional and Quality Characteristics of Ginger, Pineapple, and Turmeric Juice Mix as Influenced by Blend Variations. Foods. 2021;10(525):1-15.

Okaka JC, Okaka ANC. Food Composition, Spoilage and Shelf Life Extension. Ocjare Academic Publisher, Enugu. 2001;54-56.

Enemor VHA, Ogbodo UC, Nworji OF, Ezeigwe OC, Okpala CO, Iheonunekwu, GC. Evaluation of the Nutritional Status and Phytomedicinal Properties of Dried Rhizomes of Turmeric (Curcuma longa). J. Biosci.& Med. 2020;8:163-179.

Ogbuewu IP, Jiwuba PD, Ezeokeke CT, Uchegbu MC, Okoli IC, Iloeje MU. Evaluation of phytochemical and nutritional composition of ginger rhizome powder. Int’l Journal of Agric. And Rural Dev. 2014; 17(1):1663–1670.

Islam D, Lina NN, Roy RK, Lyzu C, Ahamed Z, Akhter S, et al. Relative Proximate Composition and Mineral Analysis of Three Garlic Varieties Available in Bangladesh. Eur. J Med. Plants. 2020;31(9):1-9.

Nkwocha, CC, Okagu, IU, Chibuogwu, CC. Mineral and vitamin contents of Monodora myristica (African nutmeg) seeds from Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutr. 2019;18:308-314.

Bouba AA, Njintang NY, Foyet HS, Scher J, Montet D, Mbofung CMF. Proximate composition, mineral and vitamin content of some wild plants used as spices in Cameroon. Food Nutr. Sci. 2012;3:423-432.

Obiloma AA, Madu WC, Osuji GO, Weerasooriya A, Ampim P, Carson L, et al. Evaluation of chemical composition of Byrsocarpus dinklagei: An uncommon indigenous spice consumed in south-eastern Nigeria. Nig. J. Nut. Sci. 2019;40(1):125-130.

Ekeanyanwu CR, Ogu IG, Nwachukwu, UP. Biochemical characteristics of the African Nutmeg-Monodora myristica. Agric. J. 2010;5:303-308.

Calvo MS, Lamberg-Allardt CJ. Phosphorus. Adv. in Nutr. 2015;6(6):860-862.