Development and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid-Solar Dryer for Cassava Grate

Patricia Omonegho Adejumo *

Department of Food Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, PMB 13, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria.

John Alaba Victor Olumurewa

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Matthew Kolawole Bolade

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


A solar hybrid dryer for cassava grate was fabricated and evaluated for performance. The major components include chimney, drying chamber, solar collector, blower housing (heater and fan) unit, solar panel, aluminum frame, rollers and 12 V direct current battery.  Evaluation of the hybrid dryer was carried out to investigate the effect of drying temperature and variety of cassava (TMS96/1414, TMS92/0326 and TMS01/1368) on moisture loss, drying rate and drying efficiency. The dryer recorded maximum temperature of 55ᵒC and 45ᵒC in the drying chamber for hybrid and solar drying respectively which are higher than the 26ᵒC recorded for ambient. In all the experiments performed it took 7 hours for the moisture content of sample using hybrid solar drying to be reduced from average of 65% to about 10.19%.  For solar drying it took 13 hours to attain moisture content of 11% while open sun drying took 35 hours to reduce the moisture content to 13 %.  The result showed that TMS96/0326 had the highest moisture loss (6.20 kg/kg, 6.09 kg/kg and 5.65kg/kg) drying rate (0.899 kg/hr, 0.870 kg/hr and 0.807 kg/hr) for open sun, solar and hybrid drying respectively. This confirmed that variety and temperature had effect on the drying performance.  The drying efficiency for hybrid drying was 78.71 %, 79.71 % and 73.42 % while solar drying had 47.76 %, 48.38 % and 44.53 % for TMS96/1414, TMS92/0326 and TMS01/1368 respectively; an indication that temperature, airflow rate and variety of cassava grate had significant effect on evaluated parameters hence the hybrid solar dryer is efficient for achieving dry cassava grate.

Keywords: Performance, hybrid-drying, cassava-grate, moisture loss, solar dryer, heater, varieties

How to Cite

Adejumo , P. O., Olumurewa , J. A. V., Bolade , M. K., & Awolu , O. O. (2023). Development and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid-Solar Dryer for Cassava Grate. Asian Food Science Journal, 22(10), 37–47.


Download data is not yet available.


Okogbenin E, Egesi C, Fregene M. Marker Aided Introgression of CMD Resistance in Latin American Germplasm for the broadening of the Genetic base of cassava in Nigeria. NRCRI, Umudike Annual Report. 2006;2-6.

Anyanwu CO, Komolafe BT. Agricultural Science for Schools and Colleges. Longman Publishers; 2003. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. USA: AOAC International, Md; 2000.

Ogwueche NI. Essential Agriculture for West African Schools and Colleges. Rejoint Communication Services Ltd; 2000.

FAO. Corporate Document Repository. [Online]. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the agricultural Sector; 2008:// DOCREP/005/Y4636E/y4636e05.htm.

Kilanko O, Ilori TA, Leramo RO, Babalola PO, Eluwa SE, Onyenma FA, Ameh NI, Onwordi PN, Aworinde AK, Fajobi MA. Design and performance evaluation of a solar dryer. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 0378032001. 2019;1-11.

Rajkumar P. Comparative Performance of Solar Cabinet, Vacuum Assisted Solar and Open Sun Drying Methods. (Unpublished) Thesis, Department of Bioresource Engineering, Mc Gill University, Montreal Canada; 2007.

Duffie JA, Beckman WA. "Solar Engineering of Thermal processes"3rd ed by Wiley Inter Science, New York. 2006:9-11.


Forson FK, Nazha MAA, Akuffo FO, Rajakaruna H. Design of mixed mode natural convection solar crop dryers: Application of Principles and rule of thumb. Renewable Energy. 2007; 32: 1-14.

Bukola OB, Ayoola PO. Performance Evaluation of a Mixed-mode Solar Dryer. Technical Report, AU J.T. 2008; 11(4):225-31.

Misha S, Mat S, Ruslan MH, Sopian K, Salleh E. Review on the Application of Tray Dryer System for Agricultural Products. World Appl. Sci. J. 2013;22(3): 424-433.

Olajuyigbe AE, Adegboyega SA, Olalekan OA. Assessment of urban land use and environmental sensitive area degradation in Akure, Nigeria using remote sensing and GIS techniques, European Sci. J. 2015; 11(29):318- 339.

ISSN: 1857-7431.

Ehiem JC, Irtwange SV, Obetta SE. Design and development of an industrial fruit and vegetable dryer. Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. and Technol. 2009;1(2):44 –53.

Nwajinka CO, Onuegbu CU. Development of a solar cabinet dryer for root crops chips in Nigeria. J. Agricul. Eng. Techno. 2014; 22(2):47– 58.

Bennamoun L. An Overview on Application of Exergy and Energy for Determination of Solar Drying Efficiency, Int. J. of Energy Eng. 2012; 2(5):184 – 94.

Aliyu B, Kabri HU, Pembi PD. Performance evaluation of a village-level solar dryer for tomato under Savanna Climate: Yola, Northeastern Nigeria, J Agricul. Eng. Int.: CIGR Journal. 2013;15(1):181– 86.

Debashree DB, Mohanty RC, Mohanty AM, Shiv SD, Bijaya BN. Performance evaluation of the Absorbing Plate of a Hybrid Solar Dryer for Potato Drying. IOP Conference Series: Earth Environmental Sci. 2022;1084(01): 1-8


Gatea AA. Performance evaluation of a mixed-mode solar dryer for evaporating moisture in beans. J. Agricul. Biotech. Sustainable Dev. 2011;3(4):65–71.

Brenndo B, Kennedy L, Oswin- Bateman CO, Trim DS, Mrema GC, Wereko-Brobby C. Solar dryers; their role in post-harvest processing. Commonwealth Science Council, Commonwealth Secretariat, Marlborough House; 1987.

Aremu OA, Odepidan KO, Adejuwon SO, Ajala AL. Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Solar Dryer. Int J Res and Innovation in Applied Sc. 2020; 5(3):159-64. ISSN 2454-6194.

Behera DD, Mohanty RC, Mohanty AM. Thermal performance of a hybrid solar dryer through experimental and CFD investigation. J Food process Eng. 2023; 46(8): DOI:

Muhammadu MM, Abraham A E. Design, fabrication and testing of solar dryer for drying cassava chip. Res. 2012;4(11):59-69.

ISSN: 1553-9865.

Ahmad F, Mohd HR, Mohd YO, Kamaruzzaman S. Energy Consumption of Hybrid Solar Drying System (HSDS) with Rotating Rack for Salted Silver Jewfish. Latest Trends in Renewable Energy and Environmental Informatics. 2013;294-8. ISBN: 978-1-61804-175-83.

Tunde-Akintunde T, Afon. Modelling of hot air drying of pretreated cassava chips. Agricultural Engineering International. 2009;1493:1-7.

Akanbi WB, Oyediran GO, Olaniran OA, Adeyeye SA, Akande MO, Adediran JA. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers and their combination on Growth, Nutrient uptake and shoot yield of Celosia (Celosia argentea L.). Science Focus. 2006;11(1): 84 – 90.

Mujumdar AS, Tsotsas E. Modern drying technology. Energy savings (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim). 2011; 4.