Development of Extruded Composite Flour Formulations using Local Grain Varieties: Formulation, Sensory Evaluation, and Nutrient Analysis

T. P. Sathsara S. Perera

Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

Pahan I. Godakumbura *

Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

M. A. B. Prashantha

Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

S. B. Navaratne

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

This study is focused on formulating a composite flour, rich in essential nutrients using selected grain varieties available in Sri Lanka. The traditional rice variety-Kalu heenati was used as the major ingredient in developing the extruded products. Rice flour (RF), Mung bean flour (MF), Black gram flour (BF), and Meneri flour (MF) together with cinnamon powder, sesame and black seeds were composited in developing the formulations based on the nutrient compositions. Thus, 16 composite flour mixtures were formulated fitting to the two-factor factorial experimental design and those formulations were extruded. Grounded samples were served with 1.5% sugar to a consumer-based sensory panel (n=35) to select the best extruded samples organoleptically. Sensorially, the best 4 samples were subjected to proximate analysis according to the AOAC protocols. Results revealed that the F3.4 formulation was sensorially acceptable as per the descriptive analysis. Proximate analysis of best extruded formulation had carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, and ash respectively as 63.37±0.02%, 20.91±0.03%, 6.01±0.06%, 9.20±0.01% and 2.41±0.02%. Mineral analysis showed that it contained calcium, sodium, iron and zinc in mg/100g as 840.70± 0.01, 413.06± 0.01, 6.73± 0.01, and 3.22± 0.04 respectively. This formulation can be promoted as a value-added product to address nutritional requirement of Sri Lankans.

Keywords: Kalu heenati, panicum miliaceum, black gram, green gram, composite flour mixtures


How to Cite

Perera, T. P. Sathsara S., Pahan I. Godakumbura, M. A. B. Prashantha, and S. B. Navaratne. 2023. “Development of Extruded Composite Flour Formulations Using Local Grain Varieties: Formulation, Sensory Evaluation, and Nutrient Analysis”. Asian Food Science Journal 22 (10):70-79. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i10674.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abeysekera K, Gunasekara U, Premakumara S. Antioxidant potential of brans of twenty-nine red and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties of Sri Lanka. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2017;5:480-485.

Samaranayake M, Yathursan S, Abeysekera K, Herath T. Nutritional and antioxidant properties of selected traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties of Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan Journal of Biology. 2017;2.

Hugo LF, Rooney LW, Taylor JRN. Malted Sorghum as a Functional Ingredient in Composite Bread. Cereal Chemistry. 2000;77:428-432.

Mamat H, Matanjun P, Ibrahim S, Md. Amin SF, Abdul Hamid M, Rameli AS. The effect of seaweed composite flour on the textural properties of dough and bread. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2014;26(2): 1057-1062.

Abdelghafor RF, Mustafa AI, Ibrahim AMH, Krishnan P. Quality of bread from composite flour of sorghum and hard white winter wheat. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;3:9-15.

Herath T. Formulation and physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber enhanced low glycemic multi-grain noodles for adults using locally available cereals and legumes. Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2018;8.

Berrios J, Ascheri JL, Losso JN. Extrusion processing of dry beans and pulses. Dry beans and pulses. 2013;185-203.

Perera TSS, Godakumbura PI, Prashantha M. A Review of rice based food product diversification in Sri Lankan food industry. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2022;7(5).

Sivaramakrishnan HP, Senge B, Chattopadhyay PK. Rheological properties of rice dough for making rice bread. Journal of food engineering. 2004;62(1): 37-45.

Mekkara nikarthil Sudhakaran S, Bukkan DS. A review on nutritional composition, antinutritional components and health benefits of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2021;45(6):e13743.

Saleh AS, Zhang Q, Chen J, Shen Q. Millet grains: nutritional quality, processing, and potential health benefits. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety. 2013;12(3):281-295.

Wang D, Zhang L, Huang X, Wang X, Yang R, Mao J, Zhang Q, LiP. Identification of Nutritional Components in Black Sesame Determined by Widely Targeted Metabolomics and Traditional Chinese Medicines. Molecules. 2018; 23(5).

Tavakkoli A, Mahdian V, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Review on Clinical Trials of Black Seed (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone. J Pharmacopuncture. 2017;20(3): 179-193.

Yeh HF, Luo CY, Lin CY, Cheng SS, Hsu YR, Chang ST. Methods for thermal stability enhancement of leaf essential oils and their main constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013;61(26):6293-6298.

Bhatt SM, Gupta RK. Bread (composite flour) formulation and study of its nutritive, phytochemical and functional properties. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2015;4(2):254-268.

Guha M, Ali S. Extrusion cooking of rice: Effect of amylose content and barrel temperature on product profile. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2006; 30:706-716.

AOAC Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. In: Helrich K (ed) 18th edn. vol II. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Washington, D.C; 2012.

Bankaji I, Kouki R, Dridi N, Ferreira R, Hidouri S, Duarte B, Sleimi N, Caçador I. Comparison of Digestion Methods Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for the Determination of Metal Levels in Plants. Separations. 2023;10(1):40.

Dhingra D, Michael M, Rajput H, Patil RT. Dietary fibre in foods: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012; 49(3):255-266.

Kariyawasam T, Godakumbura PI, Prashantha MAB, Premakumara GS. Proximate Composition, Calorie Content and Heavy Metals (As, Cd, Pb) of Selected Sri Lankan Traditional Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Varieties. Procedia food science. 2016;6:253-256.

Kulasinghe A, Madhujith T, Wimalasiri S, Samarasinghe G, Silva R. Macro-nutrient and Mineral Composition of Selected Traditional Rice Varieties in Sri Lanka; 2017.

Mubarak AE. Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of Mung bean seeds (Phaseolus aureus) as affected by some home traditional processes. Food chemistry. 2005;89:489-495.

Murugkar D, Gulati P, Kotwaliwale N, Gupta C. Evaluation of nutritional, textural and particle size characteristics of dough and biscuits made from composite flours containing sprouted and malted ingredients. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52:5129-5137.

Okwudili UH, Gyebi DK, Obiefuna JAI. Finger millet bioactive compounds, bioaccessibility, and potential health effects–A review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2017;35(1):7-17.

Agrahar-Murugkar D, Gulati P, Kotwaliwale N, Gupta C. Evaluation of nutritional, textural and particle size characteristics of dough and biscuits made from composite flours containing sprouted and malted ingredients. J Food Sci Technol. 2015; 52(8):5129-5137.

Bolarinwa IF, Olaniyan SA, Adebayo LO, Ademola AA. Malted sorghum-soy composite flour: preparation, chemical and physico-chemical properties. Journal of Food Processing & Technology. 2015; 6(8):1.

Fan TY, Sosulski FW. Dispersibility and Isolation of Proteins from Legume Flours. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal. 1974;7(4):256-259.

Makinde F, Akinoso R. Nutrient composition and effect of processing treatments on anti nutritional factors of Nigerian sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn) cultivars. International Food Research Journal. 2013;20(5).