Open Access Short Research Article

Quality of Saffron in Oman Markets

M. Al-Farsi , S. Al-Belushi , A. Al-Amri , A. Al-Hadhrami , A. Al-Alawi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 1, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i1615

Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world, it is highly valued as a culinary spice for its flavor and color properties. Since saffron is an expensive product, it is cheated by the dealers, therefore, quality control of saffron is important for the spice industries and also the consumers. This study aims to evaluate the saffron quality in Omani markets according to the ISO standard. A total of 21 saffron samples were examined; 2 in powder form and 19 in filaments. The samples of saffron were purchased from different hyper-markets and local markets in Muscat, Oman. Saffron’s commercial value is determined according to the ISO standard which include moisture, ash, acid insoluble ash, extract %, sulfuric test, artificial colors, spectrum, Flavor, aroma and color. The saffron samples were in line with standard in terms of moisture, ash, acid insoluble ash and extract %.  The two powder saffron samples failed in sulfuric, spectrum and flavor tests. From the 19 samples of saffron filament, three samples were failed to achieve the flavor and color limits required by the standard. This failure to standard quality could be due to poor processing condition such as drying and packaging or due to adulteration. The standard parameters could not distinguish between low quality and adulteration due to its limited and unspecific parameters. Therefore, we recommend improving the saffron standard with parameters targeting adulteration.

Open Access Original Research Article

The effect of Bran and Hull retention on the sensory and nutrient composition of “Ogi flour prepared from maize, millet are sorghum were investigated. The maize and sorghum were soaked for 72 hours, while the millet was soaked for 48 hours, decanted, washed and wet milled into a paste which was oven dried at 50°C for 24 hours and milled into fine flour. The proximate composition, functional properties, pasting properties of the “Ogi” flour was determined as well as evaluating the sensory properties. The moisture content, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate respectively ranged thus: 2.63 – 8.67%, 1.13 – 1.41%, 4.57 – 7.20%, 1.30 – 5.75%, 4.27 – 7.87% and 75.84 – 82.88%. The presence of Bran and Hulls led to a decrease in moisture content, on increase in ash fat and protein content with decrease in carbohydrate values. The bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling power and solubility respectively ranged as follows: 0.56 – 0.61g/ml, 1.00 – 2.00g/g, 5.50 – 6.95g/g, 16.10 – 24.40% the presence of Bran led to a decrease in bulk density in maize and millet ogi, a decrease in water absorption capacity in millet and sorghum ogi. The pastry properties of peak, trough breakdown, final and setback viscosities showed a decrease in values from the control samples values for peak time died not differ significantly (P<0.05) between the sieved and unseived ogi flours. While the presence of Bran and Hulls increased pasting temperature in maize and sorghum ogi flours. Result for sensory evaluation showed the control samples were the most preferred for all the attributes.  This study revealed that ogi flour can be prepared with a by-pass of the sieving process to enhance nutrient retention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emulsion Properties of Synbiotic Yoghurt Red Dragon Fruit Peel Extract (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Evaporation with Honey

Dimas Wahyu Pradana, Abdul Manab, Manik Eirry Sawitri

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 1, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i1612

Synbiotic yogurt is a combination of probiotics and prebiotics. Red dragon fruit peel extract contains 10.79% pectin, which can be used as a prebiotic. Dragon fruit peel synbiotic yogurt produces an unpleasant aftertaste. The addition of honey can improve the functional properties of dragon fruit peel synbiotic yogurt. The purpose of this study was to determine the emulsion of synbiotic yogurt with evaporated red dragon fruit peel extract and honey sweetener. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Brawijaya. The research material is probiotic yoghurt, synbiotic yoghurt with addition of red dragon fruit peel extract (Hylocereus polyrhizus) 20% made from 10% skim milk and yoghurt starter containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (1:1), and the addition of 2% honey to synbiotic. The research method was an experimental completely randomized design with treatment T1 = probiotic yoghurt, T2 = synbiotic yoghurt fortified red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel extract 20% and T3 = T2 + 2% honey, with 3 replications (v/v).The data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), if the test results showed a difference, then the Duncan test (DMRT) was carried out. The results showed that adding evaporated red dragon fruit peel extract and honey sweetener to synbiotic yogurt did not result in a significant difference (P>0.05) in emulsion stability or yogurt turbidity but did result in a significant difference (P>0.05) in emulsion activity. It was concluded that the evaporation of red dragon fruit peel extract with honey sweetener affected the emulsion properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Habits and Technical Systems at Work in Artisanal Fish Processing in Three Localities of Sassandra-marahoue’s District of Côte d’ivoire

Coulibaly Ibourahema, Foba Foba Stéphane Isaac, Coulibaly Adja Massagna, Konan Kouakou Ahossi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 1, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i1614

Aims: Fishing and fish processing are ancient, traditional activities, which explain why this sector is of great cultural, social and economic importance and plays a key role in feeding populations. Study Design: This study consisted of conducting a survey of processors and certain services involved in the fisheries sector of the Ministry of Animal and Fishery Resources (MIRAH). Place and Duration of Study: This prospective study … took place in the fishing areas of Bouaflé Guessabo and Soubré from October 2022 to December 2022. Methodology: A survey was conducted using a questionnaire. The latter made it possible to collect information relating to the socio-demographic characteristics of the processors, the processing methods and equipment, the various storage strategies and the limitation of post-storage losses of processed fish and the difficulties of the activity.Results: A total of 41 women processors, including 8 from Guessabo (19.5%), 15 from Bouaflé (36.6%) and 18 from Soubré (43.9%) were interviewed. Mostly young (averageage 36 to 40 years) but with 6 to 15 years (68.3%) on average of experience, only 24.4% of them are Ivorian against 75.6% of foreign nationalities. Tilapias zillii and Chrysichthys johenlsi are the species most processed by smoking and marketed in smoked form. No fish processor in the Sassandra-Marahoué district practices a processing technique other than fish smoking. Conclusion: Fish processing activities in the fishing areas of the Sassandra-Marahoué district are mainly carried out by women from neighboring countries. Traditional methods characterized by the use of artisanal hearths are adopted by the majority of them. There is also a variability of fish storage tools ranging from wooden baskets to bags of rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Properties and Hypoglycemic Effect of Finger Millet Malt Drinks Supplemented with Cucumber and Carrot Juice on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Eucharia U. Onwurafor , Chinonyelum I. Iloka, Eunice O. Uzodinma , Chinwe J. Aronu , Ebele N. Aniagor

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 1, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i1637

Aim: The study evaluated the phytochemical content and effect of supplementation of finger millet malt drinks with 25% carrot and cucumber juice on diabetes management.

Sample: Finger millet malt, cucumber juice, carrot juice, Albino rats.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology and Department of Animal Health and production, Faculty of veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (between January 2021 and June, 2021.

Methodology: Finger millet grain was malted for 48 h, dried for 5 days, and subsequently divided into two portions. A portion was roasted while the other was not. Roasted and unroasted finger millet malt drinks were prepared and blended in different ratio with processed mixture of carrot and cucumber juice. The finger millet malt drink and the supplemented malt were evaluated for phytochemical and microbial properties using standard methods. Thirty albino rats separated into four test groups and one control group initially tested for fasting blood glucose were induced diabetes using Alloxan monohydrate (dose=150 mg/kg body weight). The test animals were fed malt drinks and measured amount of rat chow for 28 days, their blood samples were subjected to serum lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and weight measurement.

Results: The results revealed that the total phenols and flavonoids increased with supplementation with cucumber and carrot juice. Total viable counts of the malt drinks ranged from 1.13 -2.93 x 102Cfu/100ml and no mould growth was detected. Rats fed sample prepared from 50% unroasted finger millet malt drink, 25% of cucumber and 25% carrot juice) had the highest reduction in fasting blood sugar level (87% and also most effective in weight regain(15.30%) while rats fed 100% roasted finger malt drink had the least decrease in fasting blood sugar (44.2%). High density lipoprotein increased and the values ranged from 26.00 -50.34 mg/dl while cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels reduced and the values ranged from 16.17 to 42.28, 8.17 -9.16, 13.35 – 21.44 and 40.84 – 46.64 mg/dl, respectively in the rats fed experimental malt drink.

Conclusion: Rats fed samples containing 50% unroasted finger millet malt, 25% of cucumber and 25% carrot drink had more weight gain (15.30%) and fasting blood glucose reduction (87%). Malted drinks from unroasted finger millet enriched with cucumber and carrot juice can be used in diabetes management.

Open Access Review Article

Popular Products of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Consumed in India and their Quality Concern

Priyanka Nagar, Mukta Agrawal, Kailash Agrawal

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 1, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i1610

Sesame is the most consumed oilseed available in different varieties in India. It is eaten as a whole seed, ground, roasted, powdered, oil, or defatted meal in preparation for traditional and popular ready-to-eat sweet and savory food items. It is used in household recipes, bakery items like biscuits, buns, bagel bread, weaning foods etc. Sesame seeds and its products are rich sources of energy, protein, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, antioxidants and essential fatty acids. The food products of sesame are available easily in rural and urban markets with a range of variety and forms. They are easily accessible and affordable for every income group. Consumers should be aware of the quality concerns of these products, which are generally sold in open packaging, causing health problems. They are sometimes not prepared hygienically, leading to microbial contamination of food products and causing ill effects. So this review is about the nutritional value of different ready-to-eat homestead and commercial sesame products available in the market and the quality concern, i.e., nutritional and microbiological, regarding these products. Besides the quality attributes, their manufacturing under safe, hygienic conditions, packaging, and storage should be ensured to avoid health hazards. The products in which sesame is present in large quantities or one of the main ingredients are energy dense and rich in protein, fats, fiber, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, and manganese. Many sesame-based sweet products produced in unorganized sectors by small manufacturers were found to need improvement regarding microbial quality compared to the products with good preparation and packaging methods.