Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment and Characterization of Residual Concentrations from Some Cook-in Food Packages Utilized in Nigeria – ‘Moi-Moi’: A Case Study

Iguh, Blessing Ngozi, Bede, Evelyn Njideka, Akanbi, Magdalene Nkeiru

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 3, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i3621

Aim: To assess the magnitude and safety of migrants from three cook-in food packaging materials (plantain leaf, polyethylene film and aluminium foil) into cooked ‘moi-moi’.

Methodology: The ‘moi-moi’ was prepared, packaged in three different packaging materials and cooked to doneness. Analyses of possible migrants from the packaging materials were carried out using standard methods. Raw ‘moi-moi’ paste and cooked ‘moi-moi’ samples were analysed for migrants from associated packaging material on day zero and day 3 of frozen storage. Proximate composition and sensory evaluation as affected by the packaging materials were also conducted. Data obtained were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means separated by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT).

Results: Results obtained showed that the heavy metals originally present in the aluminium foil and plantain leaf gained entrance into the cooked ‘moi-moi’ and the same was the pesticide residue from the plantain leaf. Phthalates and some volatile organic compounds were found to migrate from polyethylene film into the cooked ‘moi-moi’. The proximate compositions showed that the ‘moi-moi’ cooked in plantain leaf had the highest value in ash (9.14%), fibre (3.95%) and protein (21.41%) followed by that in aluminium foil with 6.47% in ash and 1.34% in fibre. The sensory results showed no significant differences in taste, after taste perception, mouthfeel and general acceptability among the ‘moi-moi’ samples cooked in the different packaging materials on day O (the day ‘moi-moi’ was cooked). Nonetheless, on day 3 (3 days frozen storage), significant differences in appearance, mouthfeel, aroma, and general acceptability of the ‘moi-moi’ samples existed except in after taste perception.

Conclusion: The concentrations of all the migrants were found to increase with increase in contact time but were all below the safety limits stipulated by WHO, Codex Alimentarius and JECFA even on day 3 of frozen storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Physicochemical Evaluation of Pineapple Fruit and Its Juice for Compliance with Export Requirements

Christiane Adda, Akim Belco Latifou, Virgile Ahyi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 3, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i3622

Fruit juices are unfermented but probably fermentable fruit extracts, stored fresh and consumed around the world due to their great nutritional importance. The objective of this study wasto determine the pesticide residues, the physicochemical and nutritional parameters of pineapple juice and pineapple derivatives in Benin. The samples were taken from pineapple juice producers and pineapple producers. These samples were subjected to microbiological and physicochemical analyzes in the laboratory.

The results show that the average pH value of whole pineapple is 4.1228±0.0130. While and the average pH value of pineapple juice is 4.0762±0.0222. Whole pineapple samples had an average titratable acidity of 85.78±2.27. The pineapple juice samples had an average titratable acidity of 85.73±4.52. Imported whole pineapple samples were found to have the highest average concentration compared to pineapple juice (0.60±0.009 g/L). The average etephon concentration is higher in whole pineapple samples (0.76±0.05) than in pineapple juice samples (0.49±0.06). The average logarithmic contamination rate on whole pineapple samples is around 2.329 log10 CFU/g for FAMT, 0.18 log10 CFU/g for yeasts and molds and 0.014 log10 CFU/g for Staphylococcus aureus. Nevertheless, the average logarithmic contamination rate on whole pineapple samples is less than 10 log10 CFU/g respectively for Coliforms, Faecal Coliforms and E coli. The suspicion of salmonella was around 0% for whole pineapple samples.

While the average logarithmic contamination rate on pineapple juice samples is around 0.71 log10 CFU/ml for FAMT. Nevertheless, the average logarithmic contamination rate on pineapple juice samples is less than 10 log10 CFU/ml respectively for Coliforms, Faecal Coliforms, E coli, yeasts and molds and Staphylococcus aureus. The suspicion of salmonella is around 0% for the pineapple juice samples.

This study reveals that pineapple juice and pineapple derivatives contained various microflora, nutritional element and pesticide residues. It also notes that the microbiological and nutritional quality of pineapple juice and pineapple derivatives varies according to the producers and depends on the hygienic conditions of production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Quality Characteristics of Flour Blends from Sesame Seeds, African Yam Bean and Moringa Leaf Powder for “Biscuit- Like” Manufacture

Elizabeth Ugbede Ohuoba , Thomas M. Okonkwo , Okoyeuzu Chigozie Francis

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 3, Page 20-32
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i3623

This study was aimed at investigating the quality characteristics of flour blends produced from sesame seeds, African yam bean (AYB) and Moringa leaf powder (MLP) for “biscuit- like” production. Dehulled sesame seeds were roasted for 7-13 min at 185 – 200 0C, defatted and milled into flour and tagged as DSDSF , African yam bean was toasted at 125 0C for 40 min, dehulled, milled into flour, and tagged as TDAYBF while Moringa leaf was sundried, milled into flour and tagged as MLP. All these flour samples were then blended into 18 ratios and tagged as LMDTM1-18. The  ratios of DSDSF:TDAYBF:MLP were  100: 0:0(LMDTM1), 0: 100: 0(LMDTM2), 95: 0: 5(LMDTM3), 95:5:0(LMDTM4), 90: 5:5(LMDTM5), 90:10:0(LMDTM6), 80:15:5 (LMDTM7), 80: 20:0(LMDTM8), 70:25: 5(LMDTM9), 70:30: 0(LMDTM10), 60: 35: 0(LMDTM11), 60: 40: 0(LMDTM12), 50: 45: 5(LMDTM13), 50: 50: 0(LMDTM14), 40: 55: 5(LMDTM15), 40: 60: 0(LMDTM16), 30: 65: 5(LMDTM17), and 30: 70: 0(LMDTM18). The flour blends were studied for physicochemical, functional and anti-nutrients properties. After blending, the formulated samples had proximate composition of  3.37 -9.21 % moisture, 18-27.5 % protein, 0.18-3.95 fat, 1.31 – 3.9 % ash, 3.2-8.88 % crude fiber and 52.75-65.45 % carbohydrate. Each proximate component varied significantly (p<0.05) between samples. While LMDTM13 had significantly(p<0.05) the highest moisture content, protein, and fat LMDTM6 had the highest ash content, LMDTM2 had the highest crude fiber and LMDTM1 had the highest carbohydrate. The control sample LMDTM1 had the highest bulk density (0.711), water absorption capacity (165.52 %), oil absorption capacity (94.5 %), protein solubility (13.4 %), foaming capacity (8.0 %), but lowest swelling power (3.5 %), emulsion capacity (46.2 %), phytate (16.29 mg/100g), tannin (4.64mg/100g) and Trypsin inhibitor (1.20 mg/100g) compared to other samples.  Blended flour mainly from plant sources of high-quality value can be blended when processed, giving the opportunity to increase its nutrition, consumption, and acceptability for biscuit- like production. In this study, sesame seeds were incorporated into African yam bean and moringa leaf powder to increase the quality and flavor replacing wheat flour in biscuit production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Single and Double Treatment Methods on the Micronutrients in Mucuna pruriens (Velvet Bean) Seed Flour

Clement Chinedum Ezegbe , Justina Nne Nwosu , Clifford Ifeanyi Owuamanam , Ekpeno Sunday Ukpong

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 3, Page 33-43
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i3624

Mucuna pruriens seed is an underutilized legume with good nutritional value with a possibility of changes in its micronutrients’ composition during processing whose data is scanty. Mucuna pruriens seed flour was therefore evaluated for the effect of soaking, cooking, roasting, germination and fermentation as well as some double treatments on its vitamin and mineral contents. Mucuna pruriens seeds were cleaned, washed, soaked, cooked, roasted, germinated and fermented. Vitamins and minerals composition were determined. Soaking, cooking and roasting significantly reduced (p<0.05) all the vitamins. Vitamin B9 was significantly (p<0.05) reduced the most with a range of 0.28 – 21.88 mg/100g. Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B12 were significantly increased by fermentation with vitamin B2 increased the most (0.26 to 1.50 mg/100g; represents 577% increase). Vitamin B9 was the most significantly reduced (p<0.05) from 21.88 to 0.28 mg/100g by 72 h fermentation. Cooking reduced all the minerals except potassium and sodium. Potassium was increased from 690.50 to 930.75, 760.50 and 730.00 mg/100 in 10, 15 and 20 minutes roasted samples respectively. Germination significantly (p<0.05) reduced all the minerals except 24 h germination which increased calcium from 218.17 mg/100g in the raw Mucuna pruriens seed to 234.36 mg/100g. Fermentation generally reduced all the minerals significantly (p<0.05) except calcium and zinc. Germination and fermentation have proved to be suitable methods for the enhancement of vitamin B2, B3, B12 and zinc in Mucuna pruriens seed flour. Combined process treatments reduce most vitamins and minerals in M. pruriens seed flour and are therefore not suitable for their improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical Quality of Fast Sealing Dissolving Edible Films as Food Packaging Based Glucomannan and Gelatin

Rischa Amalia Saleha, Fera Novitasari, Nazma Putri Andrianita , Abdul Manab , Manik Eirry Sawitri, Ria Dewi Andriani, Premy Puspitawati Rahayu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 3, Page 44-60
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i3625

The edible film is an alternative that can be used as eco-friendly packaging material (biodegradable) as a plastic substitute. The material that can be used in making edible films is glucomannan, which can dissolve easily but is less elastic. The development of the necessary edibles that can be applied to foodstuffs requires a combination of ingredients that are easy to dissolve in water. These materials can be used derived from hydrocolloids or polysaccharides. The research to obtain edible film formulated glucomannan and gelatin with the best physical quality, fast sealing and fast dissolving. The research material used glucomannan and gelatin with different concentrations designed by 5 treatments and 3 replications consisting of T1: 0,5% gelatin, T2: 0.625% gelatin, T3: 0.75% gelatin, T4: 0,875 gelatin and T5: 1% gelatin. The variables tested were solubility, total soluble matter, swelling, water content, thickness, L*, a*, b* color, browning index and whiteness index. The research method was experimental, analyzed with Analysis of Variance using Completely Randomized Design and if there were differences continued using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) on swelling and thickness. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) on total soluble matter, water content and L* color. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) on solubility, a* color, b* color, browning index and whiteness index. The results of the data based on physical quality consist of solubility ranging from 11.2-24.5%, total soluble matter 27.6-60.6%, swelling 3.49-7.75%, water content 11.5-12.15%, thickness 0.09-0.14 mm, L* color 91.3-92.5, a* color 0.78-1, b* color 1.52-2.81, browning index 2.23-3.7 and whiteness index 94.51-99.34. In conclusion, the use of edible films formulated with glucomannan and gelatin with a concentration of 0.5% produces the best physical quality, the resulting edible film has high solubility and is easy to seal.