Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phenolic and Aromatic Compound of Placenta Three Cocoa Varieties (Theobroma cacao L) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Zoro Armel Fabrice , Oussou Kouamé Fulbert , Touré Abdoulaye

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 6, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i6636

Cocoa placenta obtained after the removal of beans is a huge cocoa by-product usually regarded as waste by farmers. Cocoa placenta from three cocoa varieties: forastero, criollo and national were investigated to provide more comprehensive informations on aroma and phenolic compounds present in these cocoa placenta. For this, these 3 cocoa placenta widely produced in Côte d’Ivoire were oven-dried (50°C/3 days) after fermentation before analysis of phenolics and aromatics compounds. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified in all cocoa placenta samples with the highest amount observed in criollo (212.99 mg/g). Kaempferol pentosyldihexoside was found as the major phenolic substance in all the samples with an important amount in criollo (54.63 mg/g). According to the findings of compounds volatiles profile, a total of 48, 55 and 60 aroma constituents with variable groups including esters, alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, furans, acids, volatile phenols, hydrocarbons, and ketones were detected in criollo, forastero and national, respectively. The highest total amount was detected in national placenta (406.76 mg/kg). 2-hexanol (73.56 mg/kg), 3-Methyl-3-pentanol (19.96 mg/kg), Methoxy-1-butanol (11.75 mg/kg) was the prominent volatile substance in all cocoa placenta. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that cocoa placenta is a potential by-product that could be used in animal feed or human food formulation in order to be valued in the dietetic field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Organoleptic Evaluation of Vegan Honey Tender Bamboo Shoots Murabba

Koushki Devi , Neetu Singh

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 6, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i6638

The aim of this study was to make a Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys edulis) are regarded as one of the beneficial health foods due to their high protein, carbohydrate, vitamin, fiber, and mineral composition and very low fat content. In the current study, "Value of tender bamboo shoots murabba with cinnamon, cardamom, lemon, vegan honey, jaggery," vegan honey bamboo murabba was made in the food science and technology laboratory of the department of food and nutrition at Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University in Lucknow. Five different preparation methods for the vegan honey bamboo murabba. This research sought to determine whether vegan honey bamboo murabba was acceptable based on a sensory evaluation test completed at BBA University in India. Tender bamboo shoots, jaggery, vegan honey, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, juice, lemon juice, and water made up the basic ingredients for bamboo murabba. These ingredients were combined, dissolved, condensed, and made to an80°C (about 50°C) jaggery content. In a glass container, bamboo that had been heated to 50°C was placed. This sample was referred to as a cold-packed bamboo murabba. In order to sterilize it, the hot-pack murabba was heated on low temperature for 20 minutes. The bamboo was sterilized after 20 minutes and allowed to settle at room temperature. The sample that underwent sterilization was referred to as a heated murabba. Each sample was assessed using a Murabba sample, which was graded on a 9-point hedonic scale for flavor, smell, texture, appearance, and general acceptances in the sensory test. The color, sweetness, acidity, taste, and flavor of each sample were also assessed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Batak Onions (Allium chinense G. Don.) on Quality Parameters of Lamb Rendang

Nur Asmaq , Fachrina Wibowo , Muhammad Rinaldi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 6, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i6639

Aims: The aim of this research is to highlight Lamb Rendang Nutrition with The Addition of Batak Onions (Allium chinense G. Don.).

Study Design: A qualitative description.

Place and Duration of Study: LKPP Universitas Pembangunan Panca Budi, Medan.

Methodology: This study used an experimental method with a non-factorial completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The parameters tested were water content and pH value.

Results: The results showed that there was no significant effect (P>0.05) on the pH value and it was very significantly different (P<0.01) on the water content.

Conclusion: Batak onions can increase the nutritional value of lamb rendang seen from the water content and pH values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Seasoning Powders from Nagara Bean Tempeh and Oyster Mushroom for Umami Enhancer to Reduce Salt-use

Susi Susi , Hisyam Musthafa Al Hakim, Sasi Gendrosari

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 6, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i6640

Aims: Nagara bean tempeh and oyster mushroom have high protein, and free glutamate can increase the umami effect. The formulation is needed to obtain the desired umami level.The research aimed to formulate seasoning powders of Nagara bean tempeh flour, white oyster mushroom flour, salt, and sugarto enhance the umami taste.

Study Design: This research formulated seasoning powder using a randomized block design involving two treatment factors: 1) the concentration of salt, Nagarabean tempeh flour, and white oyster mushroom flour,and  2)  the percentage of sugar.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of analytical chemistry and industrial environment, Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, LambungMangkurat University, between June and November 2021.

Methodology: The seasoning flavor formulation includes the proportion of salt 50% to 20 %, and the remaining composition is the ratio of Nagara bean tempeh flour and oyster mushroom flour 50: 50. The addition of sugar 0%, 25%, and 30% is also studied in this formulation to determine the effect of strengthening the umami taste. The seasoning powder was analyzed by chemical and sensory analysis.

Results: Data analysis showed that the NaCl content in the seasoning powder decreased according to the reduced salt concentration in the seasoning formula. The proportions of salt: Nagara bean tempeh flour and oyster mushroom flour 20: 40: 40 produced the highest soluble protein content, total acid, and insoluble solids. Adding 25-30% sugar strengthened umami sensory test results more than the others. The results of salty taste scoring correlated with the proportion of salt in the formulation, where the salt ratio of 40%-50% was significantly not different.

Conclusion: Seasoning powder formulation using salt, Nagara bean tempeh flour, and oyster mushroom flour did not yet provide a strong umami effect. The umami effect should be enhanced by added sugar. Seasoning powder with slightly strong umami was obtained in the formulation of salt: Nagara bean tempeh flour: oyster mushroom flour by 20: 40: 40 with the sugar addition of 25%. This formula, reduced salt use in seasoning.

Open Access Review Article

Quality and Safety Concerns of Farmed Tilapia Fish during Freezing and Frozen Storage: Review

Fredrick Juma Syanya , Wilson Munala Mathia , M. Harikrishnan

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 6, Page 40-58
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i6641

This study addresses the growing concern over the quality and shelf life of farmed fish products in the market due to the increasing demand in the international market. Various preservation methods are necessary to ensure food safety and extend the shelf life of fish products. Freezing and chilling are still considered the most reliable methods for preserving farmed fish. The study reviews techniques for extending the shelf life of frozen farmed fish, with a focus on the most common species in the international market. Results suggest that good frozen storage conditions and the method of preservation are critical factors in reducing post-harvest losses and extending the shelf-life of farmed fish in the market. The study recommends adopting freezing and frozen storage principles for farmed fish species, prioritizing quality concerns post-harvest, and paying close attention to optimal frozen storage conditions. The study also recommends adopting freezing and frozen storage principles to preserve and maintain the quality of farmed fish species, such as Nile Tilapia, carp, trout, and catfish. Fish farmers should prioritize quality concerns post-harvest to ensure safety and conforming products, reduce losses and extend shelf-life. Optimal frozen storage conditions must be maintained for high-quality and safe products. Further research is required to compare the effect of prolonged freezing and frozen storage on farmed and captured fishes and factors related to fish species, habitat, and food should be considered when optimizing storage conditions.