Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing on Mixed Vegetables

S. G. Ibrahim, A. S. Isa, M. Y. Sani

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/38732

Background: Tomato, onion and pepper are vegetables that are considered for well-balanced diets since they supply vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals, they are consumed daily by all classes of population and dried against off-season.

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of Blanching on proximate composition, vitamins and minerals of fresh and dried mixed vegetables.

Methods: The vegetables were cut into slices and mixed in the ratio 5:3:2 (tomatoes, onions and pepper) respectively and subjected to homogenization. The homogenized vegetables were then divided into 3 groups; fresh, blanched and un-blanched. Both blanched and un-blanched were evaporated, pasteurized and dried using solar dryer.

Results: The moisture content of fresh is (94.97±0.06 g%) which is significantly higher at P<0.05 with blanched (20.52 ±0.51 g%) and also with un-blanched (24.16±0.23 g%). The Ash content of fresh is (0.99±0.01 g%) which is significantly lower at P<0.05 with blanched (1.23±0.25 g%) but not significant difference with un-blanched P =0.05 (0.99±0.01g%), The Crude protein content of fresh is (24.04±0.04 g%) which is significantly higher at P<0.05 with blanched (20.20±0.02 g%) and also with un-blanched (22.60±0.25 g%). The fiber contents of fresh is (1.30±0.03 g%) which is not significant P>0.05 with Blanched (1.23±0.02 g%) and un-blanched (1.48±0.06 g%). The  mineral content of fresh are (Ca2+ 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/kg, Mg2+ 1.87 ± 0.11mg/kg, Na+ 324.33 ± 4.04 mg/kg, K+ 910.00 ± 10.00 mg/kg and P 2.49±0.29 mg/kg) which are significantly higher at P<0.05 with blanched (Ca2+ 0.31±0.01 mg/kg, Mg2+1.13±0.06 mg/kg, Na+256.25 ± 8.75 mg/kg, K+ 533.33 ± 15.88 mg/kg and P 4.45 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and also with un-blanched (Ca2+0.36 ± 0.01 mg/kg, Mg2+ 1.65 ± 0.01 mg/kg, Na+ 211.83±3.18 mg/kg, K+ 733.33 ± 12.51 mg/kg and P 3.90±0.10 mg/kg). The Vitamin content of fresh are (Vitamin A 16.2±5.00 g/100 g, Vitamin C 2.26 ±0.12 g/100 g and Vitamin E 12.82±3.06 g/100 g) which are significantly higher at P<0.05 with blanched (Vitamin A 1.75 ±0.07 g/100 g, Vitamin C 1.5 ±0.06 g/100 g and Vitamin E 4.32±0.1 5 g/100 g) and also with un-blanched (Vitamin A 1.20±0.05g/100g, Vitamin C 2.02±0.11g/100g and Vitamin E 3.00 ±0.12 g/100 g).

Conclusion: These results indicate that blanching reduces the minerals, proximate and vitamins contents of mixed vegetables than the un-pre-processed samples. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Assessment of the Risk Associated to Bacillus cereus Group for the Attieke Consumer in Daloa City (Côte d’Ivoire)

Koko Anauma Casimir, Kouamé Kan Benjamin, Diomandé Massé, N’Goran M’modjou Flora, Akmel Djédjro Clément, Assidjo Nogbou Emmanuel

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39125

Aims: Attieke is a fermented cassava product. It may be contaminated by species of Bacillus cereus group, responsible for food poisoning. The objective of this study was to assess the risk associated with B. cereus group for the attieke consumer in Daloa city (Côte d’Ivoire).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Formation and Research in chemistry and food sciences, Laboratory of Industrial Process Synthesis and Environment, Felix Houphouet-Boigny National Polytechnic Institute, between April and November 2017.

Methodology: First, an investigation procedure was followed. In this method, 386 persons were interviewed in order to determine the general pattern of attieke consumption and potential symptoms related to its suse. Then, physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on thirty attieke samples collected in eight suburbs of Daloa city following standard methods. A probabilistic approach was followed to assess the risk related to attieke consumption quantitatively. Finally, the risk of ingesting the infectious dose of 1010B. cereus cells was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using both load distribution and consumption one. Data collected were subjected to statistical analyses.

Results: Physicochemical characterisation showed that the pH value, acidity and moisture content of attieke were 4.74 ± 0.76, 49.08 ± 28.93 meq.g/100 g and 51.46 ± 1.72%, respectively. These characteristics are within the recommended standards for attieke. The enumeration of B. cereus group gave loads ranging from 103 to 107 CFU/g. Besides, all the attieke samples were contaminated by these germs. A proportion of 50% of samples had poor quality. It appears that the risk exists and is 0.13% i.e., 130 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.

Conclusion: Attieke was contaminated by bacteria belonging to B. cereus group. Its consumption represents a risk of food poisoning. This risk is estimated to be 130 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Drying Method on the Physicochemical Properties of Fresh and Dried Tomato Slices

J. B. Hussein, K. B. Filli

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/38802

A hybrid photovoltaic solar dryer under the climatic conditions was used to dry tomato slices at Yola in Nigeria. The effect of this drying method on the physicochemical properties of the dried tomatoes was examined and compared with fresh tomatoes by using standard methods. The percentage proximate compositions of the fresh tomatoes was significantly different (p<0.05) from the dried ones. The fresh tomatoes contained 1.05% crude protein, 0.35% crude fat, 1.02% crude ash, 0.63% crude fiber and 2.57% carbohydrate while the open sun dried tomatoes contained 9.21% crude protein, 1.43% crude fat, 29.86% crude ash, 2.01% crude fiber and 49.24% carbohydrate. Solar dried tomatoes contained 10.67% crude protein, 1.47% crude fat, 47.03% crude ash, 2.41% crude fiber and 28.87% carbohydrate. Hybrid photovoltaic dried tomatoes contained 11.29% crude protein, 1.87% crude fat, 45.88% crude ash, 2.47% crude fiber and 30.86% carbohydrate. The titratable acidity of the hybrid photovoltaic dried tomatoes was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of solar and open sun dried tomatoes. However, the pH of the fresh tomatoes was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the dried ones. The taste index showed that the tomatoes dried by hybrid photovoltaic drying method was superior to the tomato dried through direct solar energy dryer and open sun drying other products. Conclusively, tomato by hybrid photovoltaic drying method was superior to other drying methods used and given product with higher quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Profile of ‘Ogiri’ Condiment Made from Seeds of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

F. O. Adebayo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39668

Aim: This research work was conducted to evaluate the microbiological profile of ‘ogiri’ condiment made from the seeds of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

Study Design: This work was a laboratory experimental design study.

Place and Duration of Study: Dept. of Microbiology (Food and Industrial unit), Nasarawa State University, Keffi, between March and April, 2017.

Methodology: Traditional method of ‘ogiri’ production was adopted to prepare the sample in replicates to facilitate the 24-hourly microbiological evaluations. Microbial isolation and identification were done using standard microbiological techniques. Also, laboratory-controlled fermentation was carried out using the isolates obtained from traditional fermentation as starter-cultures.

Results: The result of the traditional fermentation of the watermelon seeds yielded an oily brownish paste that has a strong characteristic pungent aroma. The result of the microbial enumeration showed that bacteria were present throughout the period of fermentation in an increasing population that ranged from 32x101 cfu/g at the starting time (Day 0) to 288 x106 cfu/g at the end of the fermentation period (Day 5). There was no fungal growth at the beginning of the fermentation, till on Day1 (8x103 cfu/g) to the Day 5 (6x106 cfu/g). The isolation of the coliform group of bacteria showed an unusual growth pattern: no coliform isolated from the freshly boiled seeds, coliform was present at Day 1 and 2, and no isolation of coliform bacteria from Day 3 to the end of the fermentation period (Day 5). Over the 5-day period of fermentation, the organisms isolated and identified are Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Lactobacillus fermenti, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, coliform bacteria, yeast and mould.

Conclusion: Hence, it was concluded that ‘ogiri’ condiment can be made from watermelon seeds, using Lactobacillus fermenti, Corynebacterium xerosis and/or Bacillus subtilis as starter cultures.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Malting & Fermentation on the Functional & Rheological Properties of Sorghum Flour

A. V. Gawande, K. P. Babar

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/38184

Sorghum is widely grown in India, Maharashtra is the leading state in its production. Sorghum is popular for poor man’s food. Sorghum-based product is composed of high nutritional value and acceptability. Although Sorghum has a number of benefits viz., it provides a high amount of carbohydrates, rather than it contains phenolic compounds and antioxidants which helps in managing diabetes, heart health, improves digestive health, beneficial in maintaining healthy bones and reduces the risk of cancer. Malting and fermentation are the two most important term which gets a huge impact on the rheological and functional behaviour of the sorghum flour. Malting and fermentation placed a good impact on the sorghum flour. Effect of this malting and fermentation varies with the various varieties of sorghum as they composed of different characteristics.