Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Palm Olein Stability during Storage Using Natural Antioxidants from Cocoa Pods Extract

Gires Boungo Teboukeu, Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Mathilde Julie Klang, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi Karuna, Hilaire Macaire Womeni

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40040

Aims: The objective of this study is an attempt to optimize palm olein stability during storage using natural antioxidants from Theobroma cacao pods.

Study Design: Drying of fresh cocoa pods, extraction of natural antioxidants and its application as antioxidants to optimize oxidative stability of palm olein during storage.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Dschang, Cameroon and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad, India, from March 2016 to January 2017.

Methodology: The plant material was extracted and its reducing power, metal ion chelating activity evaluated. The extract was added in refined palm olein. Peroxide, p-Anisidine and total oxidation (TOTOX) values were determined as response variables to evaluate the effect of storage time and extract concentration during storage of oil.

Results: The outcomes showed cocoa pods extract to be efficient in metal ion chelating activity and have the ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+. This extract was also found to be efficient in inhibiting peroxide formation and reducing, in the same way, the amount of secondary oxidation products. At 2000 ppm, Theobroma cacao pods extract has the ability to extend the shelf life (30 months) of palm olein during storage.

Conclusion: Theobroma cacao pods can be exploited as an alternative source of synthetic antioxidants for stabilization of palm olein and other oil systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Twin Screw Extrusion Variables on Amino Acid Profile of Dakuwa Produced from Blends of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L), Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) and Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L)

M. Yusuf, M. Halilu, K. B. Filli

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39871

In this study, the effect of twin screw extrusion variables on amino acid profile of Dakuwa produced from blends of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L), groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) and tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L) were researched. For this purpose, feed moisture content (18, 22 and 26%) barrel temperature (90, 100 and 110°C), feed composition 50:20:30, 50:25:25, 50:30:20 were used as parameters using Three Factor Three Levels Full Factorial Experimental Design (TFTLFFED) and twin screw food extrusion cooker (SLG 65-III Model China). As a result of the study it was found that extrusion increased the average amino acid profile of the extrudates significantly (p<0.05) with lysine (3.41-3.99 g/100 g), histidine (2.25-2.49 g/100 g) arginine (5.19-5.67 g/100 g) aspartic acid (8.59-8.92 g/100 g), threonine (3.35-3.93 g/100 g), serine (3.07-3.09 g/100 g), Glutamic acid (10.59-12.5 g/100 g), proline (2.32-2.86 g/100 g), glycine (3.48-3.90 g/100 g), alanine (3.36-3.88 g/100 g), cystine (0.83-1.09 g/100 g), valine (3.50-3.75 g/100 g), methionine (1.10-1.19 g/100 g), isoleucine (2.35-3.01 g/100 g), leucine (6.81-7.07 g/100 g), tyrosine (2.15-2.76 g/100 g) and phenylalanine (3.52-3.93 g/100 g) un-extrudates to extrudates respectively. On comparison of average amino acid with FAO daily recommended intake most of the essential amino acid profile of the extrudates satisfy the daily recommended intake for both adult and children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Development of Fast Dissolving Tablet of Clove - The Best Nutraceutical Analgesic Tablet

Ritesh Kumar Tiwari, Lalit Singh, Vijay Sharma, Pooja Singh

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39776

Aims: The aim of the present work is to formulate a fast dissolving nutraceutical tablet containing clove powder as drug, by direct compression method. Tablets contain super-disintegrant which disintegrate and dissolve fast and give its rapid onset of action in pain.

Place and Duration of Study: Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) was procured from local market were collected from the local area of Bareilly region, India. The plant material were identified and authenticated by the Department of Pharmacognosy of Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering & Technology (Pharmacy), Bareilly, India.

Methodology: The direct compression method was used for preparation of fast dissolving nutraceutical tablets containing clove. The pre-compression evaluations and the post compression evaluation of nutraceutical tablets like appearance, thickness, weight variation, hardness and friability, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content were evaluated.

Results: The results of all evaluation parameters of nutraceutical tablet were within the acceptable limit. The post compression evaluation of nutraceutical tablets like appearance, thickness of the tablets was found to be1.2±0.1 cm, weight variation 0.489±0.021 to 0.497±0.034, hardness 4.01±0.21 kg/cm2 to 4.81±0.033 kg/cm2 and friability 0.11±0.045 to 0.23±0.0.12%., disintegration time in 273±1.47 to 142±1.50 seconds and In-vitro dissolution studies and drug content were evaluated of the tablets was found to be 86.34 ±2.3 to 95.23±2.5%. It was concluded that the batch F3 formulated by using combination of crosspovidone super-disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time 142±1.50 seconds, enhance dissolution rate 95.23±2.5% and all parameter effect were found in acceptable limits.

Conclusion: The nutraceutical tablets of clove formulation containing crosspovidone have relatively faster dissolution rate and release of active medicaments which is used in dental problem and other various treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Staphylococcus aureus Profile of Some Selected Processed Foods

A. Lennox, Josiah, B. J. O. Efiuvwevwere, John, Godwin Egbe, Peters, Henry, Asanye, Melinda

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39579

Processed foods are supposed to be free of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms but this is not always true. This study is, therefore, designed to determine the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in some locally processed foods. One hundred and sixty samples of sixteen different types of processed foods and beverages were purchased from different locations in Calabar, Cross River State and microbiologically analyzed for possible contamination with Staphylococcus aureus using Compact Dry X-SA plate. The presence of S. aureus was in 38 (23.8%) of the samples and the total Staphylococcal counts ranged between 1.2 x 102 cfu/g(ml) and 4.8 x 10cfu/g(ml), with the highest count recorded in burger and the least load in Rosenberg. The food samples with the positive S. aureus were Rosenberg with 30% incidence rate, meat pie with 90%, burger 100%, donut 100% and moi moi 60% incidence rates.  The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in some of these foods analyzed is an indication of poor hygienic practices and important health threat to consumers. A total of 45 distinct colonies were isolated and screened for coagulase positive characteristics. Out of the 45 isolates, 15(33%) were coagulase positive.  The implication of this is that the consumption of these food products can lead to staphylococcal food borne disease. It is, therefore, very important for proper hygienic processing and handling practices to be employed for these foods and similar ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Acha-tigernut Composite Flour and Biscuits

J. A. Ayo, M. O. Ojo, C. A. Popoola, V. A. Ayo, A. Okpasu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39644

The research is aimed at adding value to acha based biscuits using less known and underutilized crops such as tigernuts. The objective of the study was to add value to acha based biscuits Tiger(brown) seeds were sorted, washed and oven dried(450C for 12hrs), milled(Attrition Mill) and sieved.Acha grains were washed, destoned, dried(450C), milled and sieved. The tigernut flour was substituted at  2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% into acha flour to produce tigernut-acha composite flour and 100% acha as the control sample, used for production of biscuits with the addition of other ingredients (baking fat, baking powder, salt and water). Powdered date palm was used instead of sucrose (sugar). Functional and pasting properties of the composite flour and chemical, physical and sensory properties of composite biscuits were determined. Bulk density, oil absorption capacity, swelling power, swelling index, and foaming capacity increased from 0.772 to 0.91, 0.64 to 0.68, 235 to 370%, 3 to 9, 5.56 to 10.53 and 5.566 to 10.105, respectively with an increase in the added tigernut flour. Peak, tough. Break down, final viscosity and set back values decreased from 1322 to-925, 1049 to 803,270 to 122, 2677 to 2158 and 1628 to 1356RVA, respectively, with an increase in the added tigernut flour. The spread ratio and break strength increased (5.2-5.9) and decreased (0.515 to 0.315kg), respectively with an increase in the added tigernut flour. The protein, ash, moisture and carbohydrate contents of the composite biscuits decreased from 6.04 to 5.22, 2.12 to 1.96, 9.42 to 8.81 and 68.84 to 66.46% respectively, while the fat, crude fibre and energy content increased from 13.58 to -17.57, 2.06 to 4.01% and 421.72 to 444.77cal/g, respectively, with increase in  added tigernut flour. The average means scores for taste, aroma, colour, and general acceptability decreased, while an increase were observed for other assessed attributes. Addition of tigernut flour  improved the fibre, fat and energy content as well as the crispness and texture   of acha-tigernut- biscuit .