Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolics from Litchi chinensis Sonn. and Their Potential Antioxidant Effects

Xuzhe Dong, Yihai Wang, Xiangjiu He

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40692

Aims: To research phenolics from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn. and estimate their antioxidant activities.

Study Design: Phenolics were isolated and determined from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn. Their effects on DPPH radical scavenging were investigated.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, between September 2015 and March 2018.

Methodology: Phenolics were obtained by Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS as well as HPLC chromatography and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR. The antioxidant abilities of the isolated compounds were measured by the DPPH assay.

Results: Fifteen Phenolics were isolated and confirmed from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn (115), compounds protocatechuic acid (1), ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (4), methyl p-hydroxymandelate (7), ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (9) exhibited antioxidant capacities on DPPH radical scavenging.

Conclusion: This study suggests that phenolics from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn. showed potential antioxidant properties, which mean that lychee seed could be utilized as a natural antioxidant for health care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Characterization of Oil from Sesame Seed

O. O. Olaleye, R. E. kukwa, M. O. Eke, T. O. Aondo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40444

The objective of this research was to extract (using cold press and soxhlex extraction method), determine the physicochemical characteristics and characterization of the oil from Sesame indicum seed by GC-MS analysis. Output yield gave an average of 28.23 and 46.60 % oil yield for cold and hexane solvent extraction method respectively. The extracted oil had a pH value of 5.34 and 5.87; viscosity of 32.45 and 29.50 mpa.s; refractive index of 1.4689 and 1.4684 and specific gravity of 0.9183 and 0.9182 for cold press and hexane solvent extracted oil respectively. The data indicated that there was a marked variation in iodine value, saponification value, free fatty acids, and peroxide value between the sesame oil from cold press and hexane solvent extraction method. There values were:  Peroxide value which is an indication of the ability of oil to get rancid was 5.84 and 5.61 meqO2/kg oil; Iodine value was 83.73 and 92.38 I2g/100goil; acid value was 6.09 and 5.87 mgKOH/goil, while the free fatty acid value was 3.04 and 2.92% respectively. Saponification values obtained were 212.45 and 214.53 mgKOH/goil respectively. The data revealed that cold press oil recorded higher L, a and b values than that of hexane solvent extracted oil. According to the Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results of the phytochemical analysis cold press sesame seed oil extract contains six (6) bioactive compounds namely; 9-Methyl-Z,Z-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol acetate (1.00%), 6-Methyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine-2-hione Z,Z- (0.57%), Z,Z-4,16-Octadecadien-1-ol acetate (0.36%), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z) (97.83%), 2-Pentadecanol (0.10%) and 2-Pentadecanol (0.13%) and hexane solvent extracted sesame seed oil also contain six (6) bioactive compounds from which includes limonene (0.93%) Carbonic acid, prop-1-en-2yltridecyl ester (0.14%), 9, 12-Octadecadienoyl chloride (Z: Z) (Linoleoyl chloride) (0.39%), 2-piperidinone, N-(4-bromo-n-butyl) - (0.20%) 17-pentatriacontene (1.12%) and Hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) (97.21%); of which 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z) (97.83%), and Hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) (97.21%) were the major constituent with the biological activities like antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activity present in the oils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Analysis and Minerals of Black Bean Seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Used to Manage Sickle Cell Disease in West Region of Cameroon

T. C. Kotue, P. Jayamurthy, P. Nisha, A. C. Pieme, G. Kansci, E. Fokou, P. Ashok

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40521

Objective: The purpose of this present study was conducted to determine the proximate composition, and minerals of black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) used to manage Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in West Cameroon Region.

Methods: The Proximate composition was estimated by the standard procedures of the AOAC. Mineral contents were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

Results: The results revealed that black bean seeds contained moisture (8.268%), ash (3.063%), crude fat (1.718%), total protein (29.169%), carbohydrate (58.107%), crude fiber (9.397%), total dietary fiber (21.833%) and energy value (276.994 Kcal/100 g). The minerals analysis showed that potassium has the highest value (51.648 mg/100 g), followed by Phosphorus (6.022 mg/100 g), Magnesium (3.867 mg/100 g), Chloride (0.425 mg/100 g) and iron (0.357 mg/100g), while Zinc was  the  least  (0.099 mg/100 g). Calcium was not detected.

Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that black bean seeds used to manage Sickle Cell Disease in West Cameroon Region are a good source of important nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber and minerals. This study concluded that black bean seed contained immense nutritional therapeutic importance in the management of Sickle Cell Disease.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Bioactive Compounds of Yam Varieties for Human Disease Management

Ann N. Kanu, Chinelo V. Ezeocha, Nwamaka P. Ogunka

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40473

Bioactive compounds are secondary metabolites found in plants other than the nutrient in a plant that has health benefits to the consumers. These compounds in the plant have different structure and functions. Some of the functions are antioxidative, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic etc, Yams are edible tuberous roots which belong to Dioscorea family, and are rich in bioactive compounds such as phenol, saponin, the bioactive peptide, Discorin and diosgenin. Discorin, and Diosgenin are main bioactive compounds. These compounds have therapeutic properties which improve and change health status of an individual. Their therapeutic properties are pronounced when the bioactive compounds have been extracted. This improves its efficacy and gives it an opportunity to act better.

Open Access Minireview Article

Profile of an Emergent Probiotic Bacteria: Lactobacillus helveticus

Flavio Tidona

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40877

Lactobacillus helveticus is generally found as dominant species in the whey starter culture of many cooked long ripened cheeses, thanks to a perfect adaptation in the dairy environment. Recent bioinformatics studies and phenotypic tests highlighted traits of Lactobacillus helveticus in common with those related to gut bacteria. The ability to produce fermented foods with health-promoting properties is also of great importance as it could be exploited to produce new products with added biological value. Moreover, some strains of Lactobacillus helveticus are being investigated as probiotic candidates for food products in compliance with the updated EU regulations which are applied on a food label. Any nutritional claim requested by a company is individually evaluated by the competent authority and authorized after substantial scientific evidences.