Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and In vitro Glycemic Properties of Selected Indigenous Tubers

J. H. Gwer, V. N. Enujiugha, A. B. Adeniyi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40407

Tacca involucrata, Dioscorea angawa and Dioscorea bulbifera are tubers which are usually boiled or roasted and consumed without sauce by the rural population in the Northern part of Nigeria. This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and in vitro glycemic properties of three indigenous tubers (Tacca involucrata, Dioscorea angawa and Dioscorea bulbifera). These tubers were subjected to processing. A batch was processed into raw flours, another batch was boiled for 30 min and another batch boiled for 1 h after which the samples were dried at 60°C for 48 h to obtain boiled treated flour samples. The flour samples were then analysed for proximate composition, minerals, amylose/amylopectin content, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase using -standard methods. The results of the study indicated that boiling significantly (P<0.05) increased the carbohydrate content of the raw flour samples from 79 to 81%, 79 to 84% and 85 to 88%  for Dioscorea angawa, Tacca involucrata Dioscorea bulbifera resspectively. Amylopectin content increased from (69.38±0.02%, 70.80±0.02%, 71.95±0.01%) in the raw samples to (76.56±0.05%, 74.50±0.01%, 73.32±0.01%) after 1 h boiling for Dioscorea angawa, Dioscorea bulibifera, Tacca involucrata, respectively. In vitro Alpha amylase increased its activity from (38.27±0.01 mg/g, 49.16±0.06 mg/g, 53.51±0.01 mg/g) in the raw samples to (70.29±0.5 mg/g, 65.93±0.01 mg/g, 118.76±0.03 mg/g) after 1 h boiling for Dioscorea angawa, Dioscorea bulbifera and Tacca involucrata, respectively and in vitro alpha glucosidase activities of the tubers increased from (566.11±0.01 mg/g, 603.25±0.01 mg/g, 644.43±0.04 mg/g) in the raw samples to (822.03±0.07 mg/g, 992.14±0.01 mg/g 1014.12±0.01 mg/g) in samples boiled for 1 h. Boiling these tubers for 1 h increased the rate of activity of the in vitro enzymes involved in the breaking down of starch to simple sugars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Nutritional Parameters from Flour of Ackee Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae) Seeds

Titiana Mahugnon Aguemon, Yolande Dogoré Digbeu, Jacques Gnanwa Mankambou, Edmond Ahipo Dué, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40555

The limited information on the biochemical and nutritional benefits of edible ackee (Blighia sapida) seeds makes it underutilized in West Africa. This study was to investigate the nutrient content and antinutritional factors using standard analytical methods. The results revealed that ackee (B. sapida) seeds contain some percentage flavonoid (0.134.± 0.08 g/100 g), carotenoid (0.005 ± 0.01 g/100 g), polyphenol (0.851 ± 0.40 g/100 g), total sugar (67.98 ± 0.27 g/100 g), reducing sugar (86.93 ± 0.73 g/100 g), vitamin C (0.019 ± 0.49 g/100 g), moisture contents (6.22 ± 0.04 g/100 g), crude fibre (13.84 ± 0.08 g/100 g), ash (2.68 ± 0.09 g/100 g), crude protein (7.83 ± 0.04 g/100 g) and carbohydrate (75.77 ± 0.08 g/100 g). The antinutritional composition which include alkaloids, oxalate, phytate and tannin were 0.23 ± 0.02, 391.87 ± 0.07, 415.09 ± 0.70 and 795.00 ± 0.37 mg/100 g respectively. These results indicated that ackee seeds are good source of nutritional compounds. However, they had considerable antinutritional factors. Thus, it would be better to treat them by thermal processing methods before using them for application in food systems to maintain food quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Selected Bacillus spp. Strains for Directed Fermentation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Seeds into Mbuja

Bouba Adji Mohammadou, Carl Moses Mbofung, Jérôme Mounier, Emmanuel Coton

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41317

This work aimed at developing starter cultures for fermenting Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds into the traditional condiment Mbuja. In this context, two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S1 and S5 and one Bacillus subtilis S12 strains, which had been selected in previous studies, were used separately and in combination (S5/S12) to produce Mbuja. The microbiological changes in fermenting seeds, as well as the physicochemical characteristics of the different obtained Mbuja, were evaluated. A sensory analysis was finally carried out to assess the organoleptic quality of laboratory-scale Mbuja compared to the most and the less appreciated products from traditional and spontaneous fermentation. Variable growth ability was noted for the tested starters. The combination of B. amyloliquefaciens S5 and B. subtilis S12 grew to the highest cell population of the end-product. Nutrients were globally affected by fermentation and were either increased (proteins, ash, and fats) or reduced (carbohydrates, crude fibers). Phytochemicals with potential positive impact on human health were detected and increased by the fermentation process. From the organoleptic point of view, Mbuja fermented with the combination S5 & S12 was the most appreciated by the hedonic panel, appreciation being driven by the taste and flavour of the product which was very close to that of the reference Mbuja.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Scavenging Properties and Glycemic Index of Soy-Enriched Maize-Based Gruel Fortified with Moringa Leaves and Wonderful Kola

A. B. Adeniyi, O. S. Ijarotimi, J. H. Gwer

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40375

In this study, defatted soybean cake, Moringa oleifera leaves and wonderful kola combination were used to raise the nutritional value and scavenging properties of maize-based formulated diets. After blanching and fermentation process, maize (popcorn), moringa leaves, wonderful kola seeds, defatted soybean cake were milled into flour and blended to obtain six samples (R1, R2, B1, B2, F1, F2). Samples were analyzed for antinutrients, phytochemicals, scavenging properties and glycemic index using standard methods. Both processing methods reduced antinutrient levels; particularly for phytic acid. Of the methods used, fermentation is the most effective in increasing the protein content of the formulated diets, it also had the highest scavenging ability and the lowest glycemic index. For DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) assay, R1, B1, F1 had high  scavenging abilities with F1 having the highest. Albino rats fed with 1 g of sample F1 showed a great decrease in blood glucose level below 5 mmol/l when compared with other samples and reference sample (glucose). This shows the importance of a healthy diet and the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera leaves in the prevention and management of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness on Food Fortification among Mother/Child Caretakers of Kinondoni Municipality, Tanzania

M. L. Kasankala, M. Kitunda, D. G. Mushumbusi, C. M. Cyprian, W. P. Meghji, M. C. Mgoba, E. Towo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41103

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the success of social mobilization and capacity building efforts done to educate the Mother/Child Caretakers and the general public regarding food fortification and the importance of consuming fortified food products in Kinondoni municipality.

Methodology:  The study involved Mother/Child Caretakers with children aged 6-59 months who were present during the period of the interview at Sinza hospital (n = 26), Magomeni hospital (n = 39), Manzese dispensary (n = 81) and Tandale health centre (n = 54). The knowledge and awareness information regarding food fortification were collected through face to face interview with the consent of interviewee using structured questionnaires.  The data were analysed by using the descriptive statistics.

Results: The study findings showed 64% of the Mother/Child Caretakers have heard the term micronutrients from various sources and only 7.9 % of Mother/Child Caretakers were able to define the term micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. Meanwhile, 29% Mother/Child Caretakers have heard the term food fortification and 79% don’t know types of foods being fortified with micronutrients. The main source of information regarding food fortification mentioned by Mother/Child Caretakers was health workers (41.7 %) and the most underutilized source of information was posters (0.1%). The study further noted more than 50% of the Mother/Child Caretakers were not aware of the health benefits of the micronutrients (vitamin A, folic acid, iodine and iron) being added in food. The findings further revealed that knowledge and awareness on food fortification were not influenced with income, level of education and age of the Mother/Child Caretakers.

Conclusion: Generally, the knowledge and awareness regarding food fortification are very low among Mother/Child Caretakers in Kinondoni municipality prompting a need to conduct intensive social mobilization towards promoting awareness among the Mother/Child Caretakers as well as the general public to improve child nutrition.