Open Access Original Research Article

Yam and Moringa oliefera Seed Blend in Lipid Profile Disorders, Kidney and Liver Toxicities, in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Ann N. Kanu, Joseph S. Alakali, Michael O. Eke, Abraham T. Girgih, J. A. Bosha, Solomon N. Ijioma

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41180

Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and very prevalent metabolic disease condition characterized by the abnormally high blood sugar level that eventually gives rise to diabetic complications affecting human and animals. Insulin deficiency increases free fatty acid influx and triglyceride levels into the blood, with reciprocal decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Numerous plants have in the past been screened for antidiabetic effects. Plants with medicinal property had served as anti-diabetic In this study; three yam varieties namely Dioscorea alata, Dioscorea cayennessis and Dioscorea rotundata sourced from Wuruku Market, Benue State Nigeria were evaluated for possible anti-diabetic effects.

Methods: The collected Moringa seeds were processed into flour. Moringa oleifera seed 45 male albino rats assigned into 9 groups of 5 rats each were used for the study. Eight groups were induced with alloxan monohydrate and were confirmed to be diabetic after two days before treatment with Dioscorea alata control (100%) at 90% + 10% commercial feed, DA90%MRGA10% at (90%) +10% commercial feed, Dioscorea rotundata control (100%) at 90+10% commercial feed, DR90%MRGA10%, at (90%) +10% commercial feed, Dioscorea cayennesis control (100%) at 90% + 10% commercial. DC90%MRGA10% at (90%) +10%commercial feed, Moringa seed meal (100%) at 90% + 10% commercial feed, and 100% commercial feed. Both GRP8 (non-diabetic group) and GRP 9 (diabetic untreated group), were feed with rat Chow only. At the end of 28dys, the rats were sacrificed and the kidney, liver toxicities and lipid profile disorders were all investigated.

Results: Result generated showed that diabetes caused liver, kidney toxicity and lipid disorder as evidence in the diabetic untreated groups (GRP9).Groups that received yam/moringa seed meal had significantly decreased (P<0.05) triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (Chol), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and VLDL and Serum Liver level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein, Albumin, Creatinine and Urea when compared with diabetic untreated group.

Conclusion: A combination of Moringa seed flour and some yam species may be of value in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Drum Kiln Models on Meat Quality Evaluation of Smoked Chicken Thighs

E. E. Adomeh

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41104

The experiment was carried out at the Livestock unit of the Teaching and Research Farm Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria to investigate Influence Of Drum Kiln Models On Meat Quality Evaluation Of Smoked Chicken Thighs. Four different Kiln models viz; perforated clay pot (T1), drum with upper lid cutoff (T2), drum with both lids sealed (T3) and semi-spherical drum (T4) were used for the experiment and each Kiln models was replicated four times, making a total of sixteen Kiln models. Five chicken thighs each were randomly selected and arranged to each of the Kiln models (T1, T2, T3 and T4) with three replicates each, thus making a total of eighty chickens thighs in a complete randomized design (CRD). Proximate composition and sensory evaluation were carried out and Data generated were subjected to a one-way Analysis of Variance and means were separated using the Duncan multiple range test. Result on the proximate parameters assayed revealed a significant (P<0.05) variation among the treatments with highest moisture in T2 (drum with both lid sealed) while crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and crude ash were highest in T4 (semi spherical drum kiln). However, Nitrogen Free Extract was highest in T2. For sensory evaluation, highest significant (P<0.05) value was only recorded in general acceptability while other parameters assayed were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced. From the overall result obtained from the study, it is therefore concluded that processing chicken meat with semi spherical drum kiln gave a better quality chicken meat product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Inhibitory Effect of Nisin (E234) on Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis in Chicken Sausage

T. S. P. Jayaweera, J. M. C. S. Jayasinghe, D. N. N. Madushanka, D. G. Yasawathie, H. A. D. Ruwandeepika

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41374

Aims: Nitrite is used as the main curing agent in the process of sausage production, but Nitrite has limited usage in food processing due to its, carcinogenic effect. Thus, much attention has been given to find alternative compounds to replace the Nitrite over the past decades. Nisin, a natural polypeptide compound extracted from Lactococcus lactis with no toxin production has been identified as a potential compound in this regard. This study aimed at assessing the inhibitory effect of nisin (E234) against Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis and to investigate the potential of nisin to replace the antimicrobial property of Nitrite in broiler chicken sausage production.

Study Design:  This is a laboratory-controlled experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Livestock Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka during the period of March 2014 to May 2014.

Methodology: Four types of sausages were prepared i.e with nitrite, nisin, nisin+nitrite combination, and one without any preservatives (control). Antibacterial effect of Nisin was investigated by artificial contamination of chicken meat with Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) at two different cell densities (102 and 108 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of meat) followed by treatment with nisin and nitrite. The recovery of bacteria was determined by spread plate method using ground sausages samples at precooked, cooked and frozen status. Data analysis was done using statistical analysis system for windows 9.0 software at 95% significant level.

Results: The precooked sausage batter with added nisin, nitrite and combination (nisin and nitrite)  which were contaminated with S. typhimurium at the level of 102  and 108 CFU/g meat cell density showed statistically significant reduction in S. typhimurium cell number (88%, 82.8% and 90% for102 and  89%, 84%, 91%  for the latter) reduction respectively and  there is reduction of B. subtilitis cells also at both concentrations, having 84%, 81% and 86% reduction at low and 89%, 83% and 90% at high cell density. Cooked as well as frozen treatments exhibited  a significance reduction (100%) of average colony counts in preservative added samples (nisin, nitrite and combine – nisin with nitrite) compared to control in sausages contaminated with S. typhimurium at both cell densities (102 CFU/g meat, 108 CFU/g meat). In the samples which had low contamination with B. subtilis (102 CFU/g meat)  showed 89.5%, 84.2%, 90.5% reduction compared to control (without nisin and nitrite) in nisin, Nitrite and combine (nisin + nitrite) respectively and in the samples contaminated with high number of cells showed 89.2%, 88.1%, and 91.9% respectively subsequently to cooking. In frozen samples at both contamination levels, both nisin and nitrite revealed a reduction in bacterial count compared to the untreated control.

Conclusion: It is concluded that nisin has the inhibitory effect against Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis and further it can be concluded that, there is a potential of nisin to replace the antimicrobial property of Nitrite in broiler chicken sausage production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sprouting on the Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Two Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea) Protein Isolates

Rukayya Z. Abba, Abdullahi A. Imam, Mohammed K. Atiku, Yusuf Y. Muhammad

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41158

In this research, the effect of sprouting on the functional properties and amino acid profile of protein isolates from two Bambara groundnut landraces (Yobe black and Niger cream landraces) was studied. Proteins were isolated using alkaline extraction method. The amino acid profile and functional properties were investigated using standard analytical techniques. A significantly higher (p<0.05) foaming capacity was seen in sprouted samples (Niger cream 35.00; Yobe black 17.67) compared to the unprocessed samples (11.00 and 12.67 respectively). Similarly, the foaming stability of protein isolates from the sprouted samples was significantly (p<0.05) higher in both landraces studied; the foam was stable for up to 15 min. Differences were also observed between the protein isolates in terms of bulk density, swelling index, water absorption, oil absorption, emulsion capacity and emulsion stability; the differences were statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine were the most abundant amino acids in the protein isolates studied. Differences were observed in the amino acid profile of Bambara groundnut proteins after sprouting. In Niger cream landrace, higher levels of all the amino acids were observed after sprouting. A similar trend was seen in Yobe black landrace after sprouting except for arginine, alanine and threonine that were slightly lower in processed compared to the unprocessed sample. The levels of total essential and non-essential amino acids of Niger cream landrace (48.27% and 50.86% respectively) and that of Yobe black landrace (47.75% and 48.45% respectively) were higher following sprouting. These findings indicate that sprouting improved the quality and properties of Bambara groundnut protein. Thus Bambara groundnut sprouting can provide a cheap protein source that can be used in alleviating malnutrition and in food industries where proteins are employed in preparations of food products.

Open Access Review Article

Natural Toxins in Plant Foods: Health Implications

Fredrick Onyango Ogutu, George Wanjala Wafula, Shadrack Isaboke Makori, Martin Oyoo Omondi, Naomi Jebichi Kitur

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39989

This review took a survey of literature on natural toxins in commonly consumed food crops. Food crops are a good source of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and B-vitamins. However, some foods that are generally consumed possess innate toxins with potential harmful effect in human health. The current study looked at some of the toxins their chemical structures, their mechanism of toxicities, sources of the toxins and the effect of processing on the toxins with focus on saponin, glycosides, toxic protein/amino acids and polyphenols. This paper informs consumers, regulators and researchers of plant origin foods hence help reduce toxicities among consumers.