Open Access Original Research Article

Carcass Characteristics of Red Sokoto Buck Goat as Affected by Singeing, Scalding and Skinning

P. I. Okoh, A. B. Omojola

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41139

A study on carcass characteristics of Red Sokoto (RS) Buck goat as affected by singeing, scalding and skinning was carried out. Twelve intact RS buck goats with an average live-weight of 18.00 + 0.65 Kg were allocated to these post-slaughter processing treatments. Parameters like temperature, pH, dressing percentage, wholesale cuts, Water Holding Capacity (WHC) among others, were taken. The experimental model was a Complete Randomized Design (CRD), while data generated were analyzed by the procedure of SAS (1999). Results from the study showed that singeing of RS goat meat significantly (P<0.05) elevated the internal temperature, initial pH and the WHC of the meat. Scalding significantly (P<0.05) increased the dressing percentage and wholesale cuts of the carcass. While skinning exerted significant (P<0.05) increase on the drip loss and cold loss of RS carcass Post-mortem. By this, it can be said that post-mortem handling of carcasses affects to a large extent the quality traits of the meat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Pasting and Organoleptic Properties of Fufu Flour Produced from Different Varieties of Yellow Root Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

N. E. Obasi, C. L. Arungwa, C. J. Okakpu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41628

Aims: The study examined the physicochemical, pasting and organoleptic properties of fufu flour produced from three varieties (TMS 01/1368 (UMUCASS 36), TMS 01/1371 (UMUCASS 37), TMS 01/1412 (UMUCASS 38) and TMS 30570 (control)) of yellow root cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design was used to achieve this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike between January and September 2017.

Methodology: The freshly harvested roots of the experimented cultivars, were obtained from Cassava Programme of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. These freshly harvested roots of the experimented cultivars, TMS 01/1368 (UMUCASS 36), TMS 01/1371 (UMUCASS 37), TMS 01/1412 (UMUCASS 38) and TMS 30570 (control) were obtained from Cassava Programme of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Roots of each variety were processed into fufu flour, which was subsequently made into fufu dough. The determinations of functional and pasting properties were carried out on the fufu flour and proximate, vitamin and sensory analyses were carried out on the fufu dough.

Results: Values of functional properties of the fufu flour ranged from 0.66  g/ml to 0.73 g/ml (Bulk density), 2.21 g/gsample to 3.42 g/gsample (Oil absorption capacity), 1.61 g/g sample to 4.01 g/g sample (Water absorption capacity), 42.6% to 47.6 % (Emulsion capacity), 55.67ºC to 68.67ºC (Gelation temperature),1.13s to 1.24 s (Gelation time). The proximate composition values ranged from 74.54% to 75.47% (Dry matter), 24.53% to 25.46% (Moisture content), 1.83% to 2.37% (Crude protein), 0.74% to 1.02% (Crude fat), 1.52% to 1.81% (Crude fibre), 0.53% to 0.99% (Ash), 68.94% to 70.20% (Carbohydrate) and 291.73 kCal to 295.97 kCal (Energy value). The beta carotene and ascorbic acid values in the fufu ranged from 0.26 mg/100 g to 2.92 mg/100g and 8.8 mg/100 g to 22.01 mg/100 g, respectively. The range of scores for the degree of likings for the fufu dough were 6.28 - 6.40 for colour, 6.08 - 7.28 for hand feel, 6.16 - 7.16 for mouth feel, 5.68 - 6.84 for mouldability, 6.32 - 7.64 for swallowability, 6.32 - 7.32 for odour, 6.64 – 6.92 for flavour and 6.88 - 7.76 for general acceptability. Pasting properties ranged from 92.00 RVU to 2426 RVU (peak viscosity), 76.01 RVU to 2084 RVU (trough), 16.01 RVU to 342.00 RVU (breakdown), 95.01 RVU to 2384 RVU (final viscosity), 19.01 RVU to 300 RVU (setback viscosity), 5.67 min to 6.88 min (peak time) and 50.21ºC to 84.81ºC pasting temperature.

Conclusion: All the samples analyzed in this work were all generally accepted by the 25 panellists that carried out the sensory evaluation, and sample 103 (Umucass 38) can be used in place of the control sample to prepare a fufu with a more acceptable sensory characteristics than the control sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decontaminating Effect of Organic Acids and Natural Compounds on Broiler Chicken Meat Contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium

D. N. N. Madushanka, T. S. P. Jayaweera, J. M. C. S. Jayasinghe, D. G. Yasawathie, H. A. D. Ruwandeepika

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41802

Aims: The study was carried out to investigate the effect of natural compounds and organic acids on Salmonella typhimurium in broiler chicken meat.

Study Design: This is a laboratory-controlled experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Livestock Production, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, between February 2014 and April 2014.

Methodology: Approximately equal sized (4x4x1.5 cm), shaped (cuboidal) and same weight 10g±0.2) chicken meat samples were taken, sterilized using UV and contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028) at two cell densities (102 and 108 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of meat). Subsequently, meat samples were treated with 1% solutions of both Chemical (Citric, Acetic and Lactic) and Natural compounds (Cardamom, Nutmeg and Mace) for 30 seconds. Treated samples were ground and serially diluted for the enumeration of recovered bacteria. Data were analyzed using SAS followed by a Tukey’s post-hoc test at 95% significance level.

Results: Lactic, Acetic and Citric acids have shown 66% (25 CFU/g), 55% (33.33 CFU/g) and 51% (36.6 CFU/g) reduction of colony count at 102 CFU/g inoculation and 88% (8.13x106 CFU/g), 87% (9.3x106 CFU/g) and 72% (2.03x107CFU/g) reduction at 108CFU/g inoculation level. Treatment with Nutmeg, Mace and Cardamom showed 85% (10 CFU/g), 83% (11.6 CFU/g) and 66% (23.3 CFU/g) reduction at 102 CFU/g and 89% (7.3 x 106 CFU/g), 89% (7.5 x 106 CFU/g) and 72% (1.96 x 107 CFU/g) reduction at 108CFU/g inoculation level. Natural compounds showed a 20% greater reduction of colony count in broiler chicken compared to chemical compounds.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the natural compounds and weak organic acids have an anti-S. typhimurium effect, hence it can be used for decontamination process of poultry meat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Extrusion Components on the Compositional Characteristics of an Instant Gruel Produced from Millet-Pigeon Pea Flour Blend

G. O. Nwezeh, M. B. Ndaliman

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2018/v3i1791

Extrusion cooking was used to formulate millet-pigeon pea flour blend with the aim of providing high energy, protein enriched and affordable foods for malnourished children. Five extruded samples were developed from millet-pigeon pea flour blend via extrusion cooking by loading the raw material in the feeding hopper and the screw conveys the raw materials. When the raw materials pass down the barrel, the volume is reduced and the food is compressed under pressure into a semi-solid, plasticized and form extrudates that were used for expansion index, bulk density and water absorption capacity index. Furthermore, the expansion index of 11.16, bulk density of 0.03 g/ml and swelling index of 4.10 at the screw speed of 180 to 200 rpm, feed moisture content of 15 to 25% and feed blend composition of 20 to 25% were obtained. The result of the proximate composition of the extrudates revealed that the moisture content was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in sample C (6.05) than values observed in sample A (3.68) as the concentration of pigeon pea decreases. In case of protein content, sample C (29.60) was observed to be statistically (p<0.05) higher among other samples. Similarly, the fat content was observed to be statistically (p<0.05) lower in sample C (2.03 g/100 g) and higher in sample A (3.53 g/100 g). The fibre content of millet-pigeon pea flour blend was observed to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in sample B than the value observed in sample A when the concentration of pigeon pea composition increased. The result of ash content indicated that sample B was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sample A. The carbohydrate content showed that sample A (68.34 g/100 g) was significantly (p<0.05) higher and lower in sample B (64.56 g/100 g). This increase in sample A could be attributed to low screw speed and high feed blend composition. The results of mineral content indicated that sodium content showed that sample A (3.01 mg/100g) was significantly higher than sample B (2.87 mg/100 g). The results of calcium content indicated that Sample B (3.56 mg/100g) was significantly higher and lower in sample C (2.86 mg/100 g). Similarly, the findings of magnesium and phosphorus content indicated that sample B was significantly (p<0.05) higher than value observed in sample D. The results of iron and zinc content of instant porridge produced from millet-pigeon pea flour blend showed that sample C was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sample A. The results of sensory properties of instant gruels produced from millet-pigeon pea flour blend indicated that sample C were statistically (p<0.05) higher in taste (8.34) and flavour (6.98) which could be attributed to higher screw speed and feed moisture content (Table 3.4). Thus, the result of texture indicated that sample B (7.92) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than value obtained in sample D (7.00). Unlike, colour rating and general acceptability of extrudates, sample C were statistically (p<0.05) higher when the feed moisture content increases. It was concluded that instant gruels were formulated from millet-pigeon pea which improved both the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the products.

Open Access Review Article

Tropical Fruits: Bioactive Properties and Health Promoting Benefits in Chronic Disease Prevention and Management

Israel Okpunyi Acham, Samuel Ahemen, Moses Terkula Ukeyima, Abraham Tartenger Girgih

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41853

Chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, obesity and oxidative stress continue to be a significant concern among nations of the world, which is threatening the economic and social prosperity of the people. This calls for urgent action among relevant stakeholders to explore productive and sustainable ways of addressing the incidence of these life-threatening health conditions. While medicines have been used in the treatment and management of chronic diseases, its adverse side effects over time leave much to be desired. This calls for a novel and safer approach. Tropical fruits contain a rich repository of bioactive compounds. Reports from several studies in literature indeed showed that bioactive compounds present in tropical fruits are capable of not only addressing the prevalence of chronic disease conditions, but they also have minimal to no known side effect. The broad objective of this journal article is to review the bioactive and health-promoting benefits of tropical fruits in chronic disease prevention and management. The valuable knowledge derived from this review will enable food and pharmaceutical companies to explore the production of novel functional foods/neutraceuticals and potent medicines respectively from tropical fruit sources that can be useful in chronic disease prevention and management.