Open Access Short Research Article

Nutritive Appraisal of Various Wheat Varieties/Lines for Developing Biofortified Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

M. Abdullah, J. Ahmad, A. Javed, M. Zulkiffal, M. Hussain, S. Shamim, H. Shair, M. Imtiaz, M. Owais, S. Gulnaz

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42444

Essential micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiency affect more than two billion people globally especially in pregnant women and children under the age of five. Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of essential micronutrients such as Fe and Zn. It contributes 13.1% to agricultural value addition and 2.8% to the gross domestic product (GDP) of Pakistan. National Wheat Breeding program at Faisalabad, Pakistan analysed 240 coded samples of wheat varieties/lines both from irrigated and rainfed conditions. The analysis revealed that 1000 grain weight ranged from 23.9-50.2 g in irrigated and 31-42.0 g in rainfed conditions while test weight range was found to be 59.9-75.8 (irrigated) and 64.5-79.9 kghl-1 (rainfed). Protein and gluten content ranged between 12.0-16.1 & 13-16.2 and 21-34 & 21-38% in irrigated and rainfed trial, respectively. Starch content was recorded 51.8-57.1 and 51.9-56.1% under irrigated and rainfed condition, respectively. The values of Falling No. (FN) were equally recorded in both sets. Gluten & protein were directly correlated to each other, showing a positive correlation with Fe & Zn whereas a negative correlation was recorded with starch in both sets. However, a direct correlation of FN with starch content was observed only in the rainfed set. In irrigated condition, cluster 3 (5 genotypes) represented relatively high value of Fe and Zn content while in rainfed condition, cluster 2 (31 genotypes) and cluster 3 (15 genotypes) represented relatively high Zn concentration.  The genotypes in these clusters might be helpful for developing biofortified wheat varieties to overcome Fe and Zn deficiency among the malnourished population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identifiction and Documentation of Neglected Underutilized Green Leafy Vegetables and Fruits in South East Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria

N. N. Ngwa, N. M. Nnam

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40243

Background/Objective: Micronutrient malnutrition is a public health problem. Fruits and vegetables are good sources of micronutrient to fight hidden hunger and several chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The study was designed to identify, characterize and document neglected underutilized fruits and vegetables in Southeast geopolitical zone of Nigeria.

Methodology: A multiple sampling technique was used. Focus group discussion (FGD) was used to elicit information on the underutilized fruits and vegetables, their availability and utilization in the study communities. Samples of 306 elderly women were used for the study. Volunteers from the FGD helped the researcher to uproot the food crops from the forest for further study. The plants uprooted were identified at Herbarium of the Department of Botany University of Nigeria Nsukka. Results: The result showed that quite a number of fruits and vegetables abound in the study area. A total of forty-five (45) underutilized vegetables, fourteen (14) common vegetables, twenty-three (23) underutilized fruits and twenty-two (22) common fruits were identified and documented. Underutilized fruits and vegetables are used in different ways to cure so many diseases. Conclusion: Adequate consumption of these fruits and vegetables will help to fight micronutrient deficiency-related problems, chronic diseases and diversify diet thereby leading to food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spreadability, Acceptability and Compositional Properties of Table Spreads Produced from African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) Pulp

O. M. Akusu, G. O. Wordu, C. Obiesie

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42914

African pear (Dacryodes edulis) pulp was processed and spread samples were produced from pulp treated with different levels of food grade additives and labelled as samples A (with 0.045% potassium sorbate), B (0.035% potassium sorbate), C (0.01% butylated hydroxyl toluene), D (0.005% butylated hydroxyl toluene), E (0.008% citric acid), F (0.005% citric acid), G (0.025% potassium sorbate and 0.005% BHT), H (0.005% BHT and 0.008% citric acid) and I (no preservative). The analysis was carried out to determine the compositional properties on both the pulp and the treated spread samples, as well as the spreadability and acceptability of the spread samples. The result showed that proximate compositions of the pulp had the values of 18.66, 4.45, 9.50, 48.93, 0.55, 4.82 and 62.20% for carbohydrate, protein, fat (wet based), fat (dry weight), ash, crude fiber and moisture, respectively. Spreadability of the spread samples ranged from 0.117 – 0.217mm/sec at chilled temperature (14±2°C) and 0.117 – 0.232 mm/sec at ambient temperature (28±2°C), with sample E giving the highest spreadability value of 0.217 mm/sec (chilled temperature) and 0.232 mm/sec at ambient temperature. The sensory result indicated that samples I, A and E attracted high overall acceptability with 4.25, 4.00 and 3.95 scores, respectively. The peroxide value of the spreads ranged from 4.35 – 4.79 mEq/kg, free fatty acid (2.91 – 3.27%) and vitamin C (8.14 mg/100 g – 9.25 mg/100 g). All the samples were relatively acidic with pH values ranging from 4.15 to 4.75. This study showed that table spreads rich in protein and other essential nutrients with acceptable color, taste and spreadability can be manufactured from the pulp of African pear (Dacryodes edulis).

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Evaluation of Bovine Milk in North Central Nigeria

Susan Kingsley Okeke, Moses Enemaduku Abalaka, Hussaini Anthony Makun, Jeremiah David Bala

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42555

Introduction: Physiochemical analysis is an important tool to monitor the quality of milk and other dairy products.

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical quality of the bovine milk in three selected states from the North Central, Nigeria.

Study Design: To determine pH, titratable acidity TTA, specific gravity SG, Viscosity and freezing point FP of cattle milk obtained from 15 Local Government Areas in North Central, Nigeria

Place and Duration of Study: Three states were selected from the North Central Zone of Nigeria which includes Niger, Kwara and Kogi States. A total of the 15 Local Government Areas LGAs. These include; Edati-idati, Agaie, Bosso, Mariga, and Rafi (Niger state), Patigi, Ilorin East, Ilorin West, Ifelodun, and Moro (Kwara state), Okene, Ibaji, Kabba, Idah and Lokoja (Kogi state).The sampled lasted for a year six months.

Methodology: A total of 180 cattle milk samples were collected from local producers and local vendors hawked, stationed in a market and from local milk producers. The pH, TTA, SG, Viscosity, FP of the milk samples were determined using pH meter, titration, Lactometer, viscometer, thermistor cryoscope

Results: The range values for pH, TTA, SG, Viscosity and FP of cow milk were 5.20-6.20, 0.09-1.91% lactic acid, 1.026-1.060 g/m/s, 150-184 cp and -0.442 to -0.532°C. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in pH values of milk product within each state. Out of 15 LGAs of the state, five LGAs milk samples did not conform to 1.027-1.035 g per mL set by World Health Organisation, WHO standard, while four LGAs had <1.020 specific gravity. Milk sampled from Mariga LGA had a highest FP (-0.442±0.007°C) while Edati LGA milk had -0.525±0.003°C lowest freezing point.

Conclusion: The findings revealed that most of the milk samples were adulterated with water and as such are unsafe for consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening and Isolation of Functional Lactic Acid Bacterial Strains from Traditional Fermented Vegetables Juice (Jiangshui), Northwest China

Islam Rehmat, Xiangang Meng, Xueping Li, Jing Wang, Zhenzhen Mu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42292

Aims: Jiangshui (JS) is a traditionally fermented vegetable juice which is unique to northwest China as a seasonal beverage, especially during summer season. This study was designed to isolate functional lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from JS to investigate their probiotic properties as well as high cholesterol lowering capacity in human serum.

Design of Study: Lanzhou jiaotong university, Department of chemical and biological engineering, Laboratory of microbiology and food biotechnology, Lanzhou city, Gansu, between March and January 2018.

Methodology: The strains were initially screened by MRS culture medium and high cholesterol culture medium. Then, strains were confirmed by microbiological, biochemical analysis as well as 16S recombinant DNA sequencing.

Results: After investigating different parameters of isolated LAB strains such as bile tolerance, acid resistance and antimicrobial drug sensitivity, each strain have the capacity of cholesterol degradation. The results showed that the four strains with cholesterol reduction rate (75%) were mostly identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (M2- JQ953697.1), two of them were Brevibacterium casei (M5 and H4- JF951998.2) and one was Lactococcus raffinolactis (Q7- KC951926.1.

Conclusion: In conclusion, JS is one of the best source for its nutritional values and its potential for cholesterol lowering capacity in human serum, especially M2 and Q7 strains have strong ability to survive at lower acidic conditions of gastric juices and tolerate the bile salts.