Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Yoghurt from Milk Extract of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) Using Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Locally Fermented Milk (Nono)

M. D. Makut, A. L. Olokun, R. M. Olokun

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42984

Aims: The aim of the study was to produce yoghurt from milk extract of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) using lactic acid bacteria isolated from locally fermented milk (nono) with specific objectives of comparing the proximate composition of tigernut- yoghurt with a popular yoghurt brand in Keffi, Nasarawa State and determining the acceptance level of both products based on sensory evaluation.

Study Design: A comparative study of tiger nut yoghurt and a popular yoghurt brand in Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, between December 2016 and October 2017.

Methodology: Belewu and Abodunrin’s method was used for the extraction of milk from tigernut obtained in the market. The presumptive isolates from the locally fermented milk (nono) were confirmed using the API rapid identification test kit and sub-cultured to obtain pure isolates of lactic acid bacteria. The extracted tigernut milk was fermented with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococuss thermophilus in an anaerobic chamber and the resulting yoghurt was subjected to quantitative proximate analysis and sensory evaluation.

Results: The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed no significant difference (p=.05) between the ash, carbohydrate and moisture content of all yoghurt samples but there were significant differences (p=.05) between the protein, crude fibre and fat content of both Samples. The pH of all samples was between 4.0-4.5 and titra-table acidity between 0.91-0.95. Also, the sensory evaluation result showed no significant difference (P=.05) in texture and taste except for appearance, aroma, consistency and overall acceptance

Conclusion: This study revealed that tiger nut milk can be a good substitute to cow milk for the production of yoghurt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Goitrogenic Content of Common Vegetables in South West Nigeria

Oladejo, Afees Adebayo, Okesola, Mary Abiola, Oyerinde, Adebowale Samuel, Jaiyesimi, Kikelomo Folake, Kolawole, Jesumiluyi Augustine

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42750

Endemic goiter and associated iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are prevalent in south west Nigeria. The present study was undertaken to identify the role of dietary goitrogen in the etiology of endemic goiter. Perchlorate, fluoride, nitrate, bromide, chloride, phosphate and cyanide content of common vegetables viz., cabbage, African Eggplant, Giant pigweed, Scent leaf, Amaranth, Tree Spinach, Black nightshade, consumed by the population of the region were measured. All the dietary goitrogen content in the investigated vegetables were found to be within the Acceptable Daily Intake and this observation suggests that in addition to iodine deficiency dietary intake of a cyanogenic plant, the combination of chemicals may play some role for the persistence of endemic goiter in Southwest Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Compositions and Sensory Properties of Composite Flour from FARO 44 Rice (Oryza sativa)-TMS 8082 Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Its Paste

C. O. M. Orieke, G. I. Onwuka, M. O. Iwe

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43069

This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional properties of unsoaked and soaked FARO 44 flour with their blends with cassava flour and the sensory evaluation of their thick paste. FAR0 44 and cassava flour were blended in the ratio of 75:25 (Unsoaked Rice and Cassava) sample, 50:50 (Unsoaked Rice and Cassava) sample, 25:75 (Unsoaked Rice and Cassava) sample, 75:25 (Soaked rice and Cassava) sample, 50:50 (Soaked rice and Cassava) sample, 25:75 (Soaked rice and Cassava) sample, 100% (cassava) sample 100% (Unsoaked Rice) sample  100% (Soaked rice) sample. The proximate analysis and mineral composition of the flour blends were conducted. Proximate composition data indicated an increased level of protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate (2.47-16.73%, 1.11-1.78%, 4.13-8.27%, 0.44-5.27% and 58.72-73.35%) respectively. The unsoaked and soaked rice flours and their blends where their ratios were high had higher protein content. There was a significant different (P<0.05) in the mineral content of the composites samples. Data of these study shows that the rice and cassava samples had good mineral content and the raw and soaked rice did not significantly affect the mineral content of the samples. The result indicates that vitamins A and C were significantly different (P<0.05) in the samples except for samples 100 UR and 100 SR where vitamin A was not detected. The thick paste prepared for the sensory evaluation shows that samples with 100 SR, 75 SR 25 C, 50 SR 50 C were most accepted in appearance than the other sample as compared favourably with sample 100 C. The results also show that the under-utilized cereal crop like FARO 44 rice flour and their composites with cassava are nutritionally adequate for consumption for adult and children, as well as the production of baby foods and the lot.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Evaluation of Pasta (Noodles) from Rice, Cowpea and Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour Blends

I. E. Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, C. I. Ugwu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43115

Aims: The aim was to produce and evaluate the properties (proximate and functional) of pasta from blends of local rice (Oryza sativa), white cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata) and orange-fleshed sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.] (umusco/3 variety) flours as well as to evaluate the cooking characteristics, microbiological quality and sensory attribute of the formulated pasta.

Study Design: The experimental design that was used is Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between December 2016 and September 2017.

Methodology: The study investigated the applicability of local rice, cowpea beans and orange-fleshed sweet potato flour to develop pasta rich in proteins and pro-vitamin A. The local rice and cowpea flours were blended in the ratio of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 to produce pasta which was subjected to sensory evaluation to isolate the best blend (80:20). Following this preliminary study, pastas were formulated from a combination of rice-cowpea flour blend and OFSP flour in the ratio of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 for samples RC/Pa, RC/Pb, RC/Pc, RC/Pd and RC/Pe respectively, while unblended rice (100%) was used as the control. The pasta products were subjected to physical, proximate, pro-vitamin A, cooking, microbiological and sensory analysis using standard methods.

Results: The width, height and length of the samples ranged from 0.57 to 0.82 cm, 0.88 to 1.78 cm and 2.24 to 3.48 cm respectively. The protein content, fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture, carbohydrate and caloric contents ranged from 10.91 to 18.80%, 1.95 to 2.24%, 1.74 to 3.43%, 1.52 to 3.29%, 11.09 to 14.63%, 60.95 to 80.47% and 323.85 to 339.91 kcal/g respectively. The protein, fat, ash, fibre and moisture contents of the blends were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control but their carbohydrate and caloric content were lower than the control. The pro-vitamin A content of the samples varied from 0.93 to 4.07 mg/100 g. There was an increase in the pro-vitamin A content as the ratio of orange-fleshed sweet potato increased in the blend. The cooking analysis showed that sample RC/Pa (90:10) had the highest cooking time and cooking loss while sample RC/Pe (50:50) had the highest cooking yield. The total viable count ranged from 2.0 × 104 to 6.2 × 104cfu/g while mould was not detected except on sample RC/Pd (60:40) which had 4.0 × 101 cfu/g. The microbial content of the samples was not high when assessed using the guideline for microbiological quality of pasta products. The sensory scores showed that all the samples had high ratings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Extraction Methods on the Quality and Stability of Coconut Oil

Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Mazarine Cecile Ndambwe Mouto, Gires Boungo Teboukeu, Hilaire Macaire Womeni

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43263

Aims: This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of different extraction methods on the physicochemical properties of coconut oil.

Study Design: Coconut harvesting, cleaning, oil extraction, quality analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: General Science Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Catholic University Institute of Buea, South-West Region, Cameroon, from January 2018 to June 2018.

Methodology: Oil samples were extracted from coconuts through five different methods, the traditional method 1 (Boiling and grilling for 2 hours), the traditional method 2 (cooling and grilling for 18 min), the maceration method (Hexane extraction), oven drying + pressing (Pressing 1) and finally sun drying + Pressing (Pressing 2). The obtained oils were then characterised by determining their Peroxide, Thiobarbituric acid, Iodine, Acid values and oxidative stability (Rancimat method).

Results: Results showed that the traditional method 1 significantly (p<0.05) alter the quality of coconut oil. The best extraction methods were hexane extraction, pressing methods 1 and 2, as they preserve better the quality of coconut oil and have the highest induction and stability times. Among these, hexane extraction and pressing method 1 were the best.

Conclusion: The maceration and pressing methods are the best techniques for coconut oil extraction, as they preserve better its quality.