Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Fermented Gruel (ogi) Made from Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and Moringa Leaves (Moringa oleifera)

V. F. Abioye, B. F. Olanipekun, S. A. Olaniyan, O. O. Oyakale

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43381

The effect of moringa leaf supplementation on the nutrient composition, quality attributes and consumer acceptability of sorghum-ogi was investigated the present study. Sorghum-ogi samples were produced from different ratios of sorghum grains and moringa leaf powder in the formulation of 100:0, 90:10, and 85:15, respectively. The effect of the moringa leaf powder substitution on the proximate composition, mineral content, swelling capacity, β-carotene content and on the sensory properties of sorghum-ogi was determined. The sorghum–ogi increased in the protein, ash and crude fibre with an increase in Moringa leaf substitution. An increase in the mineral content with increase in the level of substitution was observed as follows: calcium (75-390.10 mg/100 g); magnesium (21-88 mg/100 g); iron (12.40-14.13 mg/100 g); potassium (46.67-295.0 mg/100 g); zinc (0.33-0.77 mg/100 g); copper (0.53-0.67 mg/100 g). The swelling capacity decreased with increase in the substitution level while the β-carotene content of the sorghum-ogi samples ranged between 230-1241.67 µg/100 g. This study revealed that the fortification of ogi with moringa leaves at 15% improved the nutritional quality of sorghum-ogi and sorghum-ogi samples with 10% moringa leaf substitution is generally accepted by the consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nutrient and Storage Stabilizing Potential of Ginger and Garlic on Composite Fruit Smoothies

O. S. Jolayemi, O. A. Adeyeye

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44109

Aims: The study aimed at demonstrating the influence of natural spices (ginger and garlic) and storage conditions on nutritional, microbial and organoleptic characteristics of composite fruit smoothies.

Study Design: Completely Randomized General Factorial Design and Multivariate Pattern Recognition Technique were used to achieve the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure between January and May 2018.

Methodology: Smoothies were produced from the blends of pineapple, watermelon and banana, treated with garlic and ginger, bottled, pasteurized and stored for 21 days to obtain a total of 12 samples and 2 control (prior to storage). Chemical parameters such vitamin C, total phenol, total sugar, moisture and crude fibre contents, titratable acidity, pH, minerals (calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium), microbiological and sensory qualities were monitored weekly throughout the storage periods.

Results: Univariate data analysis results showed type spices as the most significant factor (p = 0.05) with respect to variables considered. There was a decline in vitamin C, titratable acidity and pH as storage time advanced. Total and reducing sugars and oBrix increased with storage while other chemical parameters did not change significantly. Garlic and ginger extracts enhanced microbial stability and contributed to better sensory acceptability of the samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) multivariate model further showed the distinct trends between the impacts of garlic and ginger on the score and loading plots. Smoothies enriched with garlic had comparatively higher TPC, crude fibre, pH, vitamin C, sodium and its ratios with potassium and magnesium, within the first week, total and reducing sugars on the third week. Conversely, ginger enriched smoothies were high in acidity, sensorial scores, magnesium and potassium in the first week of storage and oBrix afterward.

Conclusion: Garlic and ginger are potent natural preservatives with additional nutritional benefits that could replace synthetic additives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling and Optimisation of Yoghurt Production from Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Oludare Johnson Odejobi, Babatunde Olawoye, Orobola Roland Ogundipe

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44137

Tigernut with its inherent nutritional and therapeutic advantage could serve as a good alternative to scarce cow milk in the production of yoghurt. This is because the crop is locally cultivated in abundant quantities and could grow in every region in Nigeria. In this study, the ingredient formulation and processing parameters for tigernut milk yoghurt production was optimised using response surface methodology (RSM), and the physicochemical properties of the product were analysed. The analyses show that the tigernut yoghurts have a pH range of 3.93 to 5.06 and acidity range of 0.45 to 2.04% during the optimisation process. The optimum acceptability of the tigernut yoghurt processing parameter is at an incubation temperature of 35°C, incubation time of 3.12 h and starter culture concentration of 2.74%. From the analysis of variance, the R2 of all the response variables is more than 0.90, which indicates high accuracy of the model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Characteristics of Mangoes Cultivated in Chad: Characterisation of the Functional Diversity

Augustin Schinzoumka Passannet, Jean Aghofack-Nguemezi, Donatien Gatsing

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43018

Mango is one of the most consumed fruits in Chad and several varieties are cultivated there. However, their biochemical characteristics are still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of mango varieties cultivated in Chad. Moisture, dry matter, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lycopene b-carotene contents, pH and total soluble solids were determined in ripened mango fruits with firmness between 2 and 3 kgf. The results showed that Mangotine, José Tchad and Bangui mango varieties had a significantly higher total soluble solids (19.37 to 20.86°Brix) and dry matter content (24.57 to 25.48%), while Maïduguri, Kent and Smith varieties were richer in water (80.20 to 80.75%). The José Tchad variety also had the highest pH (4.74) and the highest b-carotene content (0.11 mg/10 g). The peels of all varieties of mangoes were richer in b-carotene than their pulp. Lycopene was found in the peel and pulp of some mango varieties, and the peel of Mangotine contain more lycopene than the pulp. The results indicated a functional diversity of Chad mango varieties as related to some biochemical features. Furthermore, besides the pulp, the peel of these fruits could be considered as an important alternative source of b-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Predominant Lactic Acid Microorganisms of Spontaneously Fermented Amala, a Yam Food Product

Femi Ayoade, Paulina, O. Adeniji, Kellanny, S. Amole, Yeitarere, A. Amaremo, Titilayo, O. Apata, Scott, O. Fayemi, Nicholas, E. Oyejide, Uchenna D. Abazuh, Tolulope, A. Kayode, Gbenga G. Daramola, Onikepe, Folarin

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44088

Aim: Using Four (4) varieties of yam (Dioscorea rotundata), namely, TDr Pepa, TDr Amila, TDr Alumaco and TDr 95/19177 differences in the types of organisms responsible for spontaneous fermentation were evaluated. The organoleptic properties of the final food products were also subjected to testing, in order to determine if these properties were reproducible.

Study Design: Using a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications, the four varieties of yam were tested for significant differences in the characteristics of interest among the final products. 

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted between March and May 2016 at Ede. The yam tubers were sourced from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan.

Methodology: In a standardised spontaneous fermentation set-up, four varieties of yam, were sampled eight hourly over a period of 24 hours, for lactic acid microorganisms. Representative microbial populations that were incubated anaerobically were isolated, counted, identified and characterised using standard microbiological protocols. The final products were evaluated for their organoleptic properties.

Results: The only isolated predominant lactic acid bacterial organisms was Lactobacillus brevis, while, Rhizopus spp, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Neurospora spp were identified as the representative lactic acid fungal isolates. The results revealed slight differences between the final products (amala samples) that were earlier processed using sun or oven-drying, although the differences were not statistically significant at p= .05 using  ANOVA (one-way analysis of variance).

Conclusion: The present results confirmed that the prevailing microenvironment is the prime determinant of the predominant organisms in the fermentation process and consequently in the sensory properties of the final product. The present spontaneous fermentation data indicate that similar lactic acid organisms were isolated from the different yam varieties in the fermentation set up. The foregoing shows that the organoleptic characteristics specific to this test location may be reproduced using the isolated lactic acid microorganisms, perhaps on an industrial scale.