Open Access Original Research Article

Aim: The current study aimed at studying the optimum fermentation conditions and nutritional conditions for alkaline protease production by submerge fermentation using Alternaria alternata TUSGF1, isolated from poultry farm soil.

Study Design: The results of environmental and nutritional parameters for protease production by OVAT method was analyzed by origin 6.1 software.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food technology and Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India between March 2017 and May 2017.

Methodology: A protease producing microorganism was isolated from a poultry farm soil and identified as Alternaria alternata TUSGF1. Various environmental and nutritional process parameters such as volume of medium, fermentation time, temperature, age of inoculums, agitation and carbon sources and nitrogen sources were standardized for the maximum yield of alkaline protease.

Results: The optimum conditions of protease activity was 30°C at volume of medium 60 ml with 7 days age of inoculum in the medium containing 168 h of incubation and 120 rpm agitation rate. Peptone, casien, skimmed milk, urea and yeast extract were good nitrogen sources whilst maltose, fructose, starch, and sucrose were appropriate for enzyme production by submerge fermentation.

Conclusion: Alkaline protease production by a newly isolated Alternaria alternata TUSGF1 from poultry farm soil was studied in shake flask conditions by submerge fermentation. It was established that the optimum protease production was recorded at 30°C, 60 ml volume of medium leaves and incubation time of 168 h. The best carbon and nitrogen sources for protease production were fructose and casein, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Quality of Food Supplements for Children from 6 to 59 Months Proposed to the Dietary Service of Regional Hospital of Daloa (Ivory Coast)

Beugré Grah Avit Maxwell, Niaba Koffi Pierre Valery, Combo Agnan Marie-Michel, Yao N’zué Binjamin, Gnakri Dago

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i430019

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality of the infant flours offered to mothers received in the dietary service of the CHR of Daloa.

Introduction: Ivory Coast’s membership in Scaling up Nutrition (SUN) is a momentum in a collective effort to improve the nutrition and nutritional status of the population. 

Method : For this purpose, analyses of biochemical compositions, in particular the levels of protein, fat and minerals in the proposed infant flours, were carried out. 

Results: The formulations of the flours proposed have high nutritional values. The protein content of compound flours increases proportionally with the amount of soy incorporated. Indeed, for FC2 and FC3 formulations, these contents are 17.12 ± 0.19 g / 100 g (FC3) and 17.50 ± 0.56 g / 100 g (FC2) with a rate of incorporation of 25% soy. In addition, the FC1 flour formulation enriched with peanuts is low in protein with a value of 8.69 ± 0.11 g / 100 g. These flours also had mineral contents in accordance with WHO standards of calcium (> 125 mg / kg), iron (> 4 mg / kg) and zinc (> 0.8 mg / kg). In addition these formulations are highly digestible.

Conclusion: However, to use the proposed meal formulations as food for malnutrition, it would necessarily be necessary to supplement them with available local fruits and vegetables, rich in vitamins and minerals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Unripe and Ripe Dennettia tripetala (DT) Fruits

Ekam I. Akpakpan, Eugene N. Onyeike, Charity. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i430020

Phytochemical composition and nutritive value of unripe and ripe pepper fruits (Dennettia tripetala-DT) were investigated. Phytochemical, proximate, minerals and vitamin composition were carried out using standard methods. The unripe fruit of DT had significant (P<0.05) higher concentrations of terpenes, phytosterol, steroid, oxalate, saponin, alkaloid and phytate when compared to the ripe fruit; while tannins, phenol, flavonoid, coumarin, cardiac and cyanogenic glycosides were higher in the ripe fruit compared to the unripe fruit. The ash and lipid content of DT fruits were significantly (p< 0.05) higher in the ripe DT fruit than unripe DT fruit; while the carbohydrate and the crude fibre content were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the unripe than the ripe DT fruit. The energy value (kcal/100 g sample) calculated from Atwater factors of 4, 9, 4 for carbohydrates, lipids and proteins was 347.2 for unripe and 331.4 for ripe DT fruits. Potassium composition of DT fruits were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the ripe fruit than the unripe fruit, while zinc was higher in the unripe fruit than the ripe fruit. The concentration of Na, Se, Pb, Ca, Fe and Cu did not differ significantly (p<0.05) between the two fruits. DT fruits possessed a significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9, B12 and C than the ripe fruit; while the unripe fruits showed a significantly higher concentrations of Vitamin B6 and K than the ripe fruit. Therefore, unripe and ripe DT fruits may be consumed as potential sources of nutrients and phytochemicals which may be significant as dietary supplements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Anti–Nutritional Evaluation of Garri Processed by Traditional and Instant Mechanical Methods

Augustine I. Airaodion, Edith O. Airaodion, Ogbonnaya Ewa, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Uloaku Ogbuagu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i430021

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of garri processed by traditional and instant mechanical methods.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Achara, Uturu and analyses were done at the Biochemistry and Central Laboratories of Gregory University, Uturu, Abia State between March and July, 2017.

Methods: Cassava was harvested and processed in Achara area of Uturu, Abia State. For garri processed by instant mechanical method, cassava was grated and dewatered using hydraulic press and were roasted (fried) within 24 hours of harvest. For garri processed by traditional method, the grated garri was allowed to stay for 24 hours in the sack before dewatering using sticks. The dewatering process took 3 days before roasting. The nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of raw cassava mash, garri processed by traditional and instant mechanical methods were evaluated using standard methods.

Results: The result of the analysis showed that garri processed by traditional method was higher in most of the nutritional factors but lower in all of the anti-nutritional factors investigated when compared with those of garri processed by instant mechanical method and raw cassava mash. Garri processed by traditional method was significantly higher in vitamin A but lower in vitamin C when compared with garri processed by instant mechanical method at p<0.05. Garri with palm oil has its cyanogenic glucoside significantly reduced when compared with garri without palm oil at p<0.05.

Conclusion: Long period of fermentation (3 – 5 days) of cassava product is recommended as garri processed by traditional method was nutritionally better than that processed by instant mechanical method due to the longer period of fermentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Browning Prevention and Sensory Evaluation of Frozen Yam Slices (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata Cv Kponan) of Côte D’Ivoire

Aïssatou Coulibaly, Kouadio Claver Degbeu, Abo Paul Marcelin Bekoin, Yapi Elisée Kouakoua, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare Pereko, Soumaïla Dabonné, N’Guessan Georges Amani

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i430022

Aim: To prevent enzymatic browning during the freezing of yam slices of the Kponan variety (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata).

Study Design: The experimental set-up was of a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Food Biochemistry and Tropical Products Technology Laboratory (BATPTL), University of Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, between August and December 2018.

Methodology: For this purpose, yam slices were either pretreated with a natural agent (lemon juice solution at different pH) or pretreated and blanched (85 °C for 2 min) and then packed in plastic bags and kept in the freezer at -18°C over a period of 4 weeks. Polyphenoloxidase and Peroxidase activities, Dry matter, rate of browning and sensory attributes of yam slices were determined.

Results: The results showed a decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities regardless of the treatment. The largest decreases in activity were observed in yam slices that were both pretreated and blanched compared to the control (about 53.49% decrease in the specific activity of the PPOs and 51.46% of POD). The combination of pretreatment and blanching also resulted in lower dry matter yam slices compared to pretreated slices only. After 1 month of storage in the freezer, the lower rates of loss (browning) were recorded for the slices of yams that were both pretreated and blanched compared to the other methods which had very high losses. The pretreated and blanched slices had high dry matter content. The sensory profile of slices processed by the combined technique after one month of freezing had a good appreciation for all sensory characteristics of yam.

Conclusion: In order to have a good product, the combined method is recommended for better freezer storage of yam slices.