Open Access Review Article

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.), an Underutilized Fruit Crop with Potential Nutritional Value for Cultivation in the United States of America: A Review

Satya S. S. Narina, Christopher J. Catanzaro

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43611

Tamarind is a perennial fruit crop revealing its potential as a viable resource vegetable of excellent nutrition. The late flowering types of tamarind are best suitable for cultivation in USDA Hardiness Zones 9-11, which include the warmer portions of California, Arizona, Alabama, Mississippi, New Mexico, Louisiana, Texas, and Florida. Germplasm introduction and evaluation trials will help to enhance cold hardiness, create variability in available genetic resource, and enable increased production of tamarind for various purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Approximate Prediction of Chemical Changes in Peanut Oil during Intermittent Deep Frying Process Using UV-Visible Spectroscopy

O. S. Jolayemi, F. I. Akinmeye

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44074

Aims: The study aimed at predicting some quality changes in peanut oil during intermittent frying of carbohydrate and protein-based foods, using visible spectroscopic and chemometric methods.

Study Design:  Completely Randomized Design and Multivariate Linear Regression were used to achieve this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure between February and September 2017.

Methodology: Equal weight of yam chips and marinated chicken [carbohydrate (CHO) and protein-based (PRO) foods, respectively] were fried at 170°C for 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 min with oil samples taken and topped at every interval. Changes in quality parameters such as colour density, free fatty acid (FFA), acid value (AV), peroxide (PV and saponification values (SV), K-extinction coefficients (K232nm, K266nm,K270nm and K274nm), and ΔK, with time, were determined. UV-Visible spectra (350 – 800 nm) of the oil samples were taken, and the data were elaborated with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS) regression techniques.

Results: Reduction in oxidative stability measured as increased values of FFA, PV, K-extinction values and ΔK were observed in all the samples and were particularly more pronounced (p = 0.05) in PRO-fried oils than those of CHO. Similarly, colour density increased linearly as frying time advanced in PRO-fried oil. PCA models of quality and spectra data revealed clear distinctions between PRO and CHO-fried oil samples. PLS regression coefficients showed that FFA (0.95), PV (0.92), SV (0.94), ΔK (0.98) and colour (0.95) were satisfactorily predicted; despite the relatively small sample size (15).

Conclusion: Non-destructive spectroscopic quality screening of vegetable oils during frying could facilitate rapid detection of degradation and the extent to which it can be reused. However, a large sample size is required to validate its reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Evaluation of Soybean Tempeh to Use as a Ready to Eat Meal in Egyptian Hotels

A. A. Refaat, Hemmat, M. Abdel-hady, Shimaa, A. Amin, A. M. Emam

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43681

Aims: Production and evaluation of soybean tempeh for use as a new food category (as appetiser, salads and crisps) in Egyptian hotels.

Study Design: Study soybean tempeh was prepared by fermenting soybean seeds with Rhizopus oligosporus ATCC 22959 during 96 hours fermentation period. Sensory evaluation was carried out on this food as deep frying and stewing products.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Methodology: Production of soybean tempeh by pretreatments for soybean seeds (soaking, dehulling, washing and cooking) and fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and fermentation for 96 hours, with chemical and microbiological evaluation of the production stages as well as microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluation of the final product.

Results: Compared the chemical analysis for soybean seeds and soybean tempeh found increasing protein and decreasing fat, carbohydrate, ash and phytic acid. Microbiological and chemical evaluations were carried out during solid state fermentation process and storage period at refrigerator temperatures. During the fermentation process, microbiological load and chemical changes were monitored. The content of moisture %, ash %, lipid and carbohydrate were decreased but nitrogen, protein and total amino acid, were increased to give the highest figures after 72 hr. fermentation period. During storage period at refrigerator temperature. The nitrogen, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash were little or not change was observed in the samples. Sensory evaluation of deep-frying and stewing fermented tempeh manufactured from soybean it could be concluded that the deep-fried soybean tempeh was more susceptible than stewing soybean tempeh. The highest score of the most sensory characteristics was recorded by deep-fried soybean.

Conclusion: This study was undertaken as part of efforts to introduce tempeh technology in Egypt was and to evaluate the combined effect of soaking, dehulling, cooking and fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on some antinutritional factors of soybean. As well as fermentation improved and changing the characteristics of soybeans, which increases the antioxidants and decreased anti-nutritional factors. The deep-fried tempeh was more acceptable than stewing tempeh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Traditionally Dried Marine Fish of Bangladesh

Parimal Chadra Paul, Md. Shaheed Reza, Md. Nazrul Islam, Md. Kamal

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44406

A study was conducted to assess organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological quality aspects of traditionally dried marine fish products of one of the largest fish drying zones of Bangladesh viz., Cox’s Bazar and Teknaf. It was found that eight species viz., Stromateus chinensisS. cinereusRiksha sp., Johinus argentatusTrichiurus haumelaHarpodon neherusLutianus johnii and Penaeus sp. were commonly used as raw materials to produce traditional dried fish. Organoleptic characteristics in respect of colour, odour, texture, insect infestation and presence of broken pieces in the products indicated poor to moderately acceptable condition while water reconstitution rate was found to be slower in majority of the traditional sun dried products. Results of the proximate composition such as moisture, crude protein, lipid and ash content of these products ranged from 18.56% to 24.20%, 33.56% to 58.22%, 2.74% to 15.44% and 15.87% to 32.22% respectively. Total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and peroxide value (PV) were 28.46 ± 0.5 to 42.88 ± 4.9 mg N/100g and 46.80 ± 1.9 to 82.70 ± 3.8 m.eq/kg oil respectively, both of which were higher than the recommended values for dried fish. Microbial load, on the other hand, ranged from 0.95 × 10to 1.9 × 10CFU/g indicating varying levels of viable bacteria in those products while no coliform bacteria were detected in these samples. These data provide valuable information on these highly relished dried fish for domestic consumers in order to choose them based on their quality aspects.

Open Access Short Research Article

Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Stiff Dough (Amala) Prepared from Okara Fortified Plantain-Sorghum Flours

N. O. Ilelaboye, T. I. Ogunsina

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44093

The study investigated the proximate composition and some functional properties of okara (soymilk residue) fortified plantain-sorghum composite flours and assessed the consumer's acceptability of stiff dough (Amala) prepared from the flours. Composite flours produced from plantain [P]  (Musa paradisiacal) flour and sorghum [S] (Sorghum bicolor) flour in the ratio: 100:0; 75: 25; 50: 50;; 75 : 25   100 :0 a  portion of each composite flour was fortified with 5% okara [soymilk residue] flour, making a total of 10 samples [A – J]. The proximate composition shows that moisture content ranged from 6.21±1.17% to 11.2±2.31%, ash (0.32±0.02% to 3.55 ±0.68%), crude fat (1.77±0.03% to 3.56±0.37%), crude protein (2.09±0.11% to 5.30±0.39%), crude fibre (9.38±1.44%, to 12.20±2.30%), carbohydrate (64.33±5.32% to 75.65±4.53%), and energy (305.16±14.87 kcal to 333.36±21.11 kcal).  Okara has a positive impact on the proximate composition of the flour. The functional properties shows bulk density ranged from 0.45±0.02 g/mL to 0.57±0.01 g/mL, water absorption capacity (164.65±19.73% to 219.40±11.41%), oil absorption capacity (96.45±3.46% to 148.65±14.35%), swelling power (9.97±2.02 g/g to 5.87±1.02 g/g) solubility index (36.60±0.60% to 50.53±0.00%), and wettability (27.33±2.13 Sec to 135.33±12.33 Sec). The sensory evaluation of the stiff dough revealed that sample G is the most acceptable, and sample F the least acceptable. This study revealed that Okara fortified plantain-sorghum flour could serve as raw materials in food industries, and as staple foods in various households.