Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of the Spice from the Fruit Pulp of Coelocaryon oxycarpum

Josi-Noelline Sinh, Chépo Ghislaine Dan, Jean Tia Gonnety

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44654

Aims: This study aimed to assess the sensory characteristics and antioxidant properties of a spice from the fruit pulp of Coelocaryon oxycarpum (Cox), an aromatic plant.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology (UFR-STA), University Nangui Abrogoua, between April 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: The spice was obtained by drying and crushing the fruit pulp of Cox. The powder obtained was used to evaluate the sensory (colour, aroma, taste and smell) characteristics and antioxidants (phenolic compounds and vitamin A) using standard methods of analysis. The free radicals scavenging activities of the aqueous extract of the spice from Cox were determined and compared with that of a reference antioxidant (Ascorbic acid) prepared under the same conditions.

Results: The 50 % Inhibition Concentration (IC50) value of the aqueous extract of the spice (13.64 µg/mL) for DPPH radical was approximately equal to twice the value of Ascorbic acid (6.94 µg/mL). The concentration (813.69 µg / mL) of the aqueous extract of the spice led to 50 % inhibition of hydrogen peroxide radical. The iron reducing power of aqueous extract of spice was about 33 % that of Ascorbic acid at the same concentration. The spice also showed high phenolic content (2287.42 mg GAE/100 g DW). Tannins (314.95 mg tannic acid/100 g DW) were higher than flavonoids (211.57 mg quercetin /100 g DW). Catechin (494.95 µg /100g DW), epicatechin (3.21 µg /100g DW) and quercetin (6.22 µg/100g DW) were also detected. Furthermore, sensory tests showed a score for overall acceptability corresponding to pleasant levels.

Conclusion: The spice from Cox fruit presented interesting sensory characteristics. It contains also an appreciable amount of phenolic compounds which helped to highlight the potential biological activities of the spice. This spice could be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Phytochemical Composition and Sensory Quality of Acha –Turmeric Flour Blend and Biscuits

J. A. Ayo, M. O. Ojo, C. A. Omelagu, M. K. Najime

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43365

Turmeric tuber and acha grain were dried, milled, sieved to produce respective flours. The turmeric flour was substituted (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) into acha flour to produced acha-turmeric flour blend and other ingredients (baking fat, baking powder, salt, sugar and water) was used to produce biscuits. Wheat flour (100% whole) was also used to produce biscuit as a control.  The flour blends were analysed for functional property and proximate composition while the biscuits were analysed for physical and sensory properties. The moisture, ash, fat, protein and fibre increased from 16.66-17.06, 1,79 – 2.11, 15.13 – 1523, 5.29- 5.43, 1.22-1.39%, while the carbohydrate decreased from  61.13 to 60.17% with an increase in the added turmeric flour (0 - 5%). The tannin, HCN, alkaloid and saponin content increased from 243.67 to 256.78, 2.69 to 2.83, 28.73 to 37.33 and 0.54 to 0.57 mg/100 g. The spread ratio decreased from 5.86 to 5.75, while the break strength increased from 2.59 to 2.37 kg. The average mean score for colour, crispiness, flavour, taste, texture, and general acceptability increased from 7.80 to 8.80, 7.35 to 7.36, 7.60 to 8.70, 7.20 to 7.96, 8.20 to 8.22, 8.05 to 8.57. The flour blend biscuits containing 4% turmeric flour was most preferred and accepted with the corresponding increament of 9.48, 11.17 and 22.29% of protein, ash and fibre content respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Physical and Sensory Quality of Acha-moringa Seed Flour Blend Biscuits

Ayo, Jerome Adekunle, Ayo, Victoria Abiodun

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43505

Moringa (M. oleifera) seed flour was substituted into acha (Digitaria exillis) at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 %, thoroughly mixed to produce acha-moringa seed flour blends. Principal ingredients (baking fats, salt, yeast, water) were added to the blends, mixed, rolled, cut and baked at 180°C to produce biscuits. The proximate composition, physical (spread ratio and break strength) and sensory quality of the biscuits were determined. The values of moisture, ash, fats, protein, fibre and carbohydrate content of the acha-moringa seed flour blend biscuits range from;- 8.79 - 8.60, 4.85 - 5.96, 18.46 - 20.31, 12.25 -14.19, 2.56 - 4.15 and 52.86 - 46.80%, respectively. The spread ratio and break strength of the acha moringa flour blend biscuits decreased from 4.81 to 3.46 and 1572.50 to 1125.00g, respectively, with an increase in the added moringa seed flour. The average means scores for colour, aroma, texture, taste, mouthfeel and general acceptability ranges from 6.52-5.48, 6.52- 5.44, 5.8- 5.18, 5.44-4.52, 5.24- 4.44, 6- 5.24, respectively, with added moringa seed flour. The flour blend biscuits were most acceptable at 10% and below of added moringa seed flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Cereal-Based Complementary Foods Supplemented with Soybean and Monkey Kola

D. B. Kiin-Kabari, A. G. Osemene-Onwochei, M. O. Akusu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44899

Different blends of cereal-based complementary foods were formulated from millet/maize, soybean and yellow monkey kola flours. Seven blends were formulated from maize (Zea mays) flour, partially defatted soybean (Glycine max) flour and monkey kola (Cola parchycarpa) flour while seven other blends were formulated from millet (Pennisetum americanium) flour, partially defatted soybean flour and monkey kola flour. All the blends were evaluated for proximate and sensory attributes with a branded complementary food as control (cerelac maize). Samples that conformed to set standards in the proximate parameters and had the highest sensory scores were further evaluated for amino acid profile. Results showed that moisture content of the millet and maize-based blends ranged from 5.15 to 6.73% and 5.15 to 8.29%, respectively. They all fell within the codex requirement of <10%. Ash content for all the blends were less than 3% while fat content of both millet and maize-based blends increased with increase in substitution level. Protein content of samples E1, F1, G1, F2 and G2 exceeded 15% acceptable limit. Crude fibre content of all samples conformed to <5% set by many organisations. All test samples were in line with codex standard of not less than 58% in terms of carbohydrate content. Energy content ranged from 387.87 to 402.73 kcal/100 g and 379.34 to 399.43 kcal/100 g for millet and maize-based blends, respectively. The results of the sensory evaluation of the products showed that the commercial product scored higher than the experimental blends and that the millet-based blend did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from the maize-based blend in terms of overall acceptability. The amino acid profile result showed that all essential amino acids were present in the test samples, in amounts exceeding the minimum requirement for complementary foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium and Lead Residue in Commercial Eggs in Damaturu Local Government, Yobe State, Nigeria

H. B. Galadima, M. Babagana, H. I. Abdulrahman, M. M. Gashua, I. B. M. Garba, A. B. Hanga

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44172

Poultry egg is a self-contained unit for starting a new life, it is the most consumable animal protein in the world and so the safety of this important food for its role in the daily diet is paramount. The objectives of this study were to determine the sources of table eggs and to detect the residue of cadmium, lead, chromium and arsenic in commercial eggs meant for human consumption in Damaturu Local Government, Yobe state. Sixty table egg samples were collected using convenient sampling method. After preparation and processing the samples in the laboratory the concentration of these metals has been determined in whole egg, using digital calorimeter. Data were analysed using SPSS statistical package (Version 21). There are 2 major source of commercial eggs in Damaturu Viz: Damaturu farms and Jos, plateau state. The mean residue concentrations of these metals in the whole egg was as follows: Damaturu farms include 0.023 mg/kg, 0.043 mg/kg, 0.032 mg/kg and 0.002 mg/kg for cadmium, lead, chromium and arsenic respectively. Jos include 0.054 mg/kg, 0.023 mg/kg, 0.007 mg/kg and 0.008 mg/kg for cadmium, lead, chromium and arsenic respectively. The mean residue concentration of Cadmium sourced from Jos farms and Chromium from both Damaturu and Jos farms have exceeded the Maximum residue limit for these metals in table eggs. Therefore, it is cause for concern. It can be prevented or control through Farmers’ awareness on the danger of heavy metal residue, adopting the principle of hazard analysis and critical control point and legislation by the government.