Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Complementary Food from Blends of Quality Protein Maize and Conophor nuts (Tetracarpidium conophorum)

T. N. Fagbemi, G. Oboh, O. A. Adedokun

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44611

Complementary food was formulated from Quality protein Maize (QPM) and Conophor Nuts (Tetracarpidum conophorum). The effectiveness of the blend in meeting nutritional requirement in complementary diet was investigated. Proximate composition of the samples were evaluated which include crude protein, fat, moisture content, crude fibre and ash. Rat feeding method was used for nutritional quality determination. Compounded experimental and control diet were fed to albino rats for 28 days. The results observed in this study revealed that blend of Quality protein maize and conophor nut produced good complementary food with an increase in protein content. Protein content of formulated diet was 17.69% compared to 9.0% of the Quality protein maize. Evaluation of protein quality revealed that the formulated diet compared favourably with casein diet at 10% iso nitrogenous protein level. The formulated diet has high protein quality that can support the growth of infants in developing countries. The diet microbial quality is within acceptable level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of the Fortified Biscuits with Sesame Cake Flour

Seham M. El-Enzi, Nadyah M. Andigani, Nora A. Al-Tamimi, Gamal A. Gabr

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/45232

Sesame (Sesamum indicum, L.) is the main important crop, edible oil source and protein in Saudi Arabia. In the present study, wheat flour supplemented with sesame cake flour (SCF) at different levels of substitution 20%, 30% and 40% for biscuits making. Biscuits sensory evaluation was carried out using 10-points hedonic scale. The results concluded that, 20% sesame flour substitution was the best one of sensory characteristics of biscuits as colour, taste, appearance, flavour, texture and overall acceptability. In addition, the protein, crude fat, fiber, ash of the composite biscuit showed increases while the carbohydrate and moisture contents exhibited decreases in content. The mineral elements content of the composite biscuit increased significantly (p<0.05) with increased sesame flour substitution. Composite biscuit with the 40% biscuit exhibiting the least preference. Therefore, sesame flour inclusion in biscuit making has the ability to improve the physicochemical and micronutrient content of the composite samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Analysis of Selected Street Vended Fried Foods Sold in Wudil Town along Maiduguri Road, Kano State, Nigeria

B. A. Jido, A. A. Shehu, F. U. Salisu, A. Yahaya, M. Ali

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/45421

Aim: A bacteriological analysis of four selected street vended fried ready-to-eat food types (Yam, sweet Potato, Akara and Masa) sold freely and openly at various location in Wudil town along Maiduguri road Kano, Nigeria was conducted from April, 2017 to August, 2017.

Methodology: The food samples collected were cultured on a Nutrient agar and MacConkey agar plates for isolation and identified using gram staining and motility test and subsequently subjected to various biochemical tests which include; catalase, coagulase, indole, methyl red, Voges – Proskauer, citrate utilisation urease and oxidase tests.

Results: From the total of 200 samples examined, 183 (91.5%) were contaminated by different bacterial agents, total of 191 bacterial isolates were recovered, in which 89(46.6%) were Staphylococcus aureus,45(23.6%) Escherichia coli, 38(19.9%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 19(9.9%) Klebsiella pneumoneae but statistically there is a significant difference (p < 0.05). Analysis of the food samples revealed mean total bacterial count ranging from 1.6 x 103 cfu/g (yam) to 1.0 x 102 cfu/g (potato), where fried beans ball (Akara) had a mean bacterial count of 1.5 x 103cfu/g and fried rice masa with 1.06 x 103 cfu/g, therefore, mean bacterial count were high in fried yam, followed by fried Akara, rice masa and fried potato has less prevalence.

Conclusion: It is recommended that food vendors should be enlighten on food contamination by food regulatory agencies since most of them are not aware of microbial invasion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Antinutrient Content and Antimicrobial Properties of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Leaves

J. A. Lennox, G. E. John

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/45055

Fresh leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius were harvested from area gardens around Mayne Avenue in Calabar. Proximate composition, anti-nutrient content, vitamins content and antimicrobial activity of the extract were determined. The antimicrobial activity using the aqueous extract was also determined. The results of the proximate composition revealed the presence of moisture 86.40%, ash 6.50%, protein 4.38%, fat 1.20%, fibre 2.39% and carbohydrate 85.36%. The antinutrient components detected are within the acceptable limits with phytic acid 60.44mg/100g followed by total oxalate 40.30mg/g and therefore will not cause any adverse health problems. Toxic amino acid and chlorogenic acid were not detected in the plant extract. The vitamin contents range from 0.10mg/100g to 143.20mg/100g. The highest value was found in vitamin A and the least in niacin. The antimicrobial activities of the extract of this plant against the pathogenic test organisms showed zones of inhibition ranging from 20.5 mm for Salmonella typhi to 26 mm for Streptococcus pyogenes at 10 µg/ml. The highest zones of inhibition observed with the standard antibiotics were gentamycin 19mm at 10 µg/ml against E. coli, ofloxacin 21mm at 5 µg/ml against K. pneumoniae and methicillin 16mm at 10 µg/ml against S. pyogenesK. pneumonia and E. coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Pumpkin Pudding-like Food Using Soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

Takeshi Nagai, Norihisa Kai, Yasuhiro Tanoue, Nobutaka Suzuki

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/45522

Aims: This study aimed to develop an enhanced value-added pudding-like food with soybeans to improve quality of everyday life for peoples suffering from egg and milk allergies.

Study Design: Preparation of pudding-like foods, improvement of its quality, setting up sensory evaluation and determination of proximate composition.

Place and Duration of Study: Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan, from November 2017 to October 2018.

Methodology: Optimal condition was investigated to prepare pudading-like food as follows: 1. adding water rate to raw soybeans, 2. bittern content, 3. Heating time and temperature of soymilk, 4. addition of sugars to improve the taste, 5. addition of pumpkin as a secondary ingredient to improve nutritive value. The physicochemical properties of pudding-like food were compared to those of commercially available puddings.

Results: Best processing condition was as follows: 1. Soymilk was prepared by addition of four volumes of water to raw soybeans, 2. After 0.25 % (w/v) bittern and 5 % (w/v) yellow soft sugar to soymilk, it heated about 5 min at 80 ℃, 3. It could enhance the quality of food with the addition of 10 % (w/v) mashed pumpkin as a secondary ingredient. It showed great sensory potential and has high proteins, low fats and carbohydrates, and low calorie. Moreover, it was ß-carotene-rich pudding-like food.

Conclusion: It could develop a smooth, readily meltable in the mouth, and delicious pudding-like food with satisfactory appearance and high nutritive value using soybeans instead of eggs and milk.