Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Prevalence of Congeners from Distilled Spirits of Different Sources

Jude O. Iwouno, Chigozie E. Ofoedu, Vivian N. Aniche

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i329970

Aim: With recent increase in health-related incidence arising from consumption of spirit beverages in Nigeria, there is need to investigate the prevalence of possible contaminants in spirits that may have toxicological effect on human when consumed. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and levels of congeners present in spirits obtained from fermentates of cassava, molasses and palm wine purchased from different locations.

Study Design: This study was made to fit a one way Analysis of Variance.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at laboratory of Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri and Project Development Agency (PRODA) Enugu and International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, between April 2017 and November 2018.

Methodology: Analysis of common congeners in spirits of cassava, molasses and palm wine fermentates obtained through distillation method was carried out using the Gas-Chromatography. Physicochemical properties of the spirits measured were specific gravity, pH and viscosity. The spirit distillates were analysed for concentrations of ethanol, higher alcohols and possible congeners such as esters, ethyl carbamate (EC) and ethyl acetate.

Results: The distillates yielded alcoholic content of 39.00 to 46.71%. Ethyl carbamate content of spirits from cassava recorded an average mean value of 13.44 µg/l which was not significantly different from (P > .05) spirits from molasses and palm wine, with an average mean values of 12.49 µg/l and 13.75 µg/l respectively. The most important higher alcohols of the spirit distillates responsible for aromatic characteristic of spirits were found to be 1-propanol (0.06-0.11%), isobutyl alcohol (0.02-0.09%) and isoamyl alcohol (0.12-0.76%). The type and location of raw materials did not significantly affect the concentrations of the available congeners found in the distilled spirits. Good fermentation employed in this research work significantly reduced the concentrations of the detected congeners.

Conclusion: Comparing the results with data from literature, it can be concluded that the concentrations of all investigated volatile compounds in the samples of spirits from cassava, palm wine and molasses are commonly acceptable. Federal regulatory agencies such as National Agency for Food Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) should be encouraged to carry out routine analysis on commonly produced and sold spirit beverages in order to prevent sale of contaminated drinks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Ethephon in Postharvest Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

Urmi Rani Devi, Ayesha Begum, Nilufa Yeasmin

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i329971

Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of applying ethephon on postharvest tomato.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of Applied Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Processing and Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. It was conducted for a period of six months from 1st January, 2018 to 30th June, 2018.

Methodology: TSS (Total Soluble Solid) was determined by using hand refractometer, proximate composition by standard AOAC method, vitamin C and β-carotene by UV-spectrophotometric method, sodium and potassium by flame photometric method, titratable acidity, calcium and magnesium by titremetric method. To compare differences in control and treated group, significant difference was considered at the level of P<0.05.  

Results: Ethephon treated tomatoes ripen quickly with attractive surface color and had shorter shelf life than non-treated tomatoes (control). Physico-chemical properties including total soluble solid and titratable acidity increased significantly (P<0.05) in treated group (4.66±0.57°B; 0.32±0.01% respectively) than control (3.33±0.57°B; 0.28±0.01% respectively). Moisture content also significantly (P<0.05) increased in ethephon treated tomato (94.15±0.27g/100g) than non-treated (85.54±0.23g/100g). But significantly lower amount of carbohydrate, ash, crude fiber were observed in artificially ripened tomato by ethephon (2.5±0.45g/100g; 0.51±0.02g/100g; 0.82±0.03g/100g respectively) than naturally ripened (3.7±0.26g/100g; 0.59±0.01g/100g; 0.90±0.01g/100g respectively). Apparently protein and fat content were found insignificantly less amount in artificially ripened tomato by ethephon. The significant lowest concentration of vitamin C and β-carotene were observed in ethephon ripened tomato (16.65±0.01mg/100g; 413.33±1.15μg/100g respectively). Mineral contents of ethephon treated tomato (Na 3.65±0.47mg/100g; K 199±1.00mg/100g; Ca 4.75±0.07mg/100g; Mg 8.57±0.19mg/100g) found significantly (P<0.05) fewer amounts than control tomato (Na 3.96±0.01mg/100g; K 213.67±0.57 mg/100g; Ca 5.57±0.15mg/100g; Mg 9.96±0.04mg/100g).

Conclusion: Application of ethephon on postharvest tomato hastens ripening time and physico-chemical properties but reduces shelf life and nutritive value of tomato.

Open Access Original Research Article

An In-silico Pharmacokinetics Study on Cis-Heptadeca-1,9-Diene-4,6-Diyne-3,8-Diol: A Nutraceutical Compound with Anticancer Properties

Paul Tobechukwu Okoli, Vivian Chiadikaobi Nzute, Olanrewaju Ayodeji Durojaye, Ogechukwu Henrietta Chielo, Queensley Chinyere Ajibo, Solomon Imaga Udo, Sandra Munachiso Ezeh

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i329972

The polyacetylenic compound cis-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol with the trivial name of falcarindiol, has been shown through various studies to exhibit anticancer activities. The beneficial effects of polyacetylenes occur at nontoxic concentrations and thus represent pharmacologically useful properties indicating that polyacetylenes may be important nutraceuticals of vegetables. In the human diet, carrots are the major dietary source of falcarinol-type polyacetylenes, in particular falcarinol and falcarindiol. The prediction of physicochemical parameters relevant for drug likeness was performed by computational methods. The Lipinski, Ghose and Veber rules were applied to assess drug likeness and to predict whether the compound is likely to be a bioactive compound according to other important parameters such as molecular weight, LogP, number of hydrogen bond donors and hydrogen bond acceptors. The SwissADME tool used vector machine algorithm (SVM) with fastidiously cleaned large datasets of known inhibitors/non-inhibitors as well as substrates/non-substrates for its predictions. Results from the in silico pharmacokinetics study on falcarindiol showed that the compound exhibited drug likeness characteristics and as such can serve the purpose of an anticancer agent, being a nutaceutical and bioactive component of falcarindiol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Toxicity & Biomarker Response of Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus) to a Daily Dose of Local Gin (Ogogoro)

E. Oriakpono, Obemeata, N. Gbule, Ronald

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i329973

This study evaluates the effect of local gin (ogogoro) on Hepato-renal parameters such as aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, sodium, potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate, haematological parameters such as total protein, packed cell volume, red blood cell, white blood cell haemoglobin, platelet and lymphocytes and sperm count parameter.

The results show that: The mean serum electrolytes were for week 1 (Na 165.0, K 5.27, Cl 99.67 and HCO3 19.67), week 2 (Na 138, K 5.77, Cl 89.67 and HCO3 20), week 3 (Na 126.67, K 3.67, Cl 87.67 and HCO3 19) and week 4 (Na 117.67, K 2.70, Cl 73.67 and HCO3 22) and showed a significant difference in Na, Cl and HCO3 only when compared with the average control at (P<0.05), AST had a mean of 30.0 in week 1 which increased to 45.0 in week 4 while ALT had a mean of 15.0 in week 1 and increased to 30.67 in week 4. The mean serum protein reduced from 51.15 in week 1 to 42.53 in week 4 with significant difference (P<0.05). Mean PCV reduced from 36.0 in week 1 to 24.40 in week 4, Hb from 12.07 in week 1 to 8.80 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) when comparing the test with the average control, WBC from 6.17 in week 1 to 5.40 in week 4, Platelet increased from a mean of 255 on week 1 to 683 on week 4 with significant difference (P<0.05), RBC had a mean of 5.27 in week 1 and 5.25 on week 4 with no significant difference (P>0.05). Lymphocyte reduced from a mean of 69.0 week 1 to 45.50 in week 4 but when the test was compared with the average control it had a significant difference (P<0.05). While the mean sperm count was 275 in week 1 and 325 in week 4. These investigations demonstrated that local gin changes blood parameters which could lead to anaemia in mammals when constantly taken and also cause a detrimental effect on sperm count which could cause infertility in males as well as kidney and liver disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Microorganisms from Fermenting Parkia biglobosa in Kuje Market, Abuja

Makut Danladi Makwin, Olatilu OluKemi Anna

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i329974

Lactic acid bacteria constitute one of the most abundant groups of microorganisms in most fermented food products across Nigeria. The biochemical signatures of these species make the ideal catalysts for a range of processing events with the food industry. This study was undertaken to isolate and screen for lactic acid bacteria strains obtainable from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds purchased at a rural seed market in Abuja. Data obtained revealed that seven morphologically distinct bacteria isolates were obtained using antifungal induced (0.3 mg/ml Fluconazole) yeast extract, malt extract, peptone, glucose, agar media. The seven bacterial isolates were given the designations TEA, TEB, TEC, TED, TEF, TEJ, and TEL respectively. The obtained all but two isolates (TEB and TEL) were all capable of fermenting fructose, glucose, lactose, sucrose and trehalose as the sole carbon source in the broth. Morphological examination revealed that the isolates obtained were non-spore forming gram positive colonies ranging from creamy to white, clear, cocci and rod-shaped, smooth textured and flat elevation with transparent opacity. Their Growth measurements were determined by measuring the optical density of the cells in broth using spectrophotometer at 600nm over a 96 hour incubatory period in nutrient broth at 37oC. Isolate TEC displayed the highest overall growth pattern over the 24 hour period via optical density readout 1.85, 2.40, 2.65, 2.80. All isolates except TEB were negative for catalase and citrate, thereby suggesting that TEB was a specie of the Citrobacter family. All isolates tested negative for coagulase, indole and motility tests. Suggestions from the data obtained lean towards the use and suitability of the isolated bacteria as ideal cultures for commercial fermentation.