Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Added Black Cumin Seed (Nigella sativa L) Oil on Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil

Ali Beik Khormizi, Simin Asadollahi, Bizhan Khorshidpoor, Elahesadat Hosseini

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i429975

Background: Lipid oxidation has adverse effect on food deterioration and human health. Oxidative reactions limit the shelf-life of fresh and processed foodstuffs which are of great concern in the vegetable oil and fat industry.

Aim: The antioxidant activity of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L) Oil (BCO) as a source of natural antioxidants was compared against a synthetic antioxidant (BHA). Its oxidative stability was evaluated in Flaxseed oil (as the most sensitive oil against oxidation) in concentrations of BHA (200ppm).

Study Design: Oils were analyzed for the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and for some physicochemical properties [Peroxide (PV), P-Anisidine (AV),TOTOX values, Thiobarbituric acid, Iodine value, Oxidative stability (OS)and Refractive index]to assess the extent of oil deterioration during 30th days of storage.

Place and Duration of Study: Islamic Azad University of Varamin and Tehran University, Tehran, Iran, From March 2018 to April 2018.

Methodology: Optimal condition was investigated to protect edible oil like flaxseed oil from oxidative reaction. Black cumin seeds and flaxseeds were pressed separately by cold press. Then BCO was prepared at five concentration levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% (w/w) and added to Flaxseed oil. In terms of antioxidant activity, they were analyzed by Gas Chromatography and compared with sample containing 200 ppm of synthetic antioxidant (BHA) during 30thdays at ambient temperature (22-25° C).

Results and Conclusion: The results showed that different levels of BCO were able to slow down the lipid oxidation well, but the effect of sample contained 5% BCO was higher than other levels and has potential source of natural antioxidant for the application in food industry to prevent lipid oxidation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Potassium Bromate in Bread in Ibadan Metropolis: Fifteen Years after Ban in Nigeria

Augustine I. Airaodion, Ogbonnaya Ewa, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Aanu P. Agunbiade, Abiodun P. Oloruntoba

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i429976

Background: In 2003, the National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), the agency responsible for regulating drugs, foods and chemicals in Nigeria, banned the use of potassium bromate in bread on account of its deleterious effect and carcinogenicity in humans.

Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the level of compliance to the use of potassium bromate in bread fifteen years after ban.

Study Design: This study was made to fit a one way Analysis of Variance.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out in Ibadan, the Oyo State capital of Nigeria between July and December, 2018.

Methodology: Thirty loaves of bread were purchased in Ibadan metropolis. They were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of potassium bromate in them. Quantitative determination was done using spectrophotometric method that is based on the redox reaction between bromate and promethazine hydrochloride in an acidic medium. The absorbance of the product was read at 620 nm. The qualitative test was performed directly on a portion of each bread sample using 2 ml of 0.01 M promethazine and 0.6 ml of 12 M hydrochloric acid. The change in colour of each bread sample to purple indicates the presence of potassium bromate.

Results: All the 30 bread samples analyzed contain potassium bromate. The concentration of KBrO3 in the sampled bread ranged between 1.24 µg/g and 9.31 µg/g. The quantity of KBrO3 in each bread sample correlates with the degree of purple colour obtained in the qualitative test.

Conclusion: Since all the sampled bread had potassium bromate in concentration above safe level for human consumption, bread consumers and bakers are at risk of exposure to potassium bromate with health implications. The need for continuous surveillance and enforcement of the ban on use of potassium bromate in baking industry in Nigeria is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Extracting Solvents on the Phyto-chemical Properties of Fermented Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) Seed

M. O. Adesola, E. A. Akande

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i429977

Fruit seeds contain several phytochemical compounds which have been reported to show antiviral, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti tumor and antioxidant activities. Due to the varied chemical properties of these seeds, different solvents are used in the extraction. Therefore, this research was aimed at evaluating the effect of extracting solvents on the yield, phytochemical compounds and selected chemical properties of fermented pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed. Extracts from fermented T-solo variety of pawpaw seeds were obtained using petroleum ether, n-hexane and hot aqueous solvents using standard method. Analysis was carried out to determine some qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical and some selected chemical composition (Peroxide Value PV and Thiobarbituric Acid Value TBA. Extracts’ yield were 26.00, 23.30 and 19.51% for petroleum ether, n-hexane and hot aqueous solvent, respectively. The result of quantitative analysis shows that all the phytochemicals were more abundant in petroleum ether extract. The PV and TBA of n-hexane, petroleum ether and hot water extract were 5.32, 4.52, 0.00 meq/kg and 0.87, 0.16, 0.09 μg/kg respectively. The PV and TBA obtained for petroleum ether extract were relatively low and         this implied that the extract will undergo little or no autoxidation or oxidative deterioration when used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Analysis of Some Selected Infant Formula Sold in Makurdi Metropolis

Ogochukwu Augustina Onuorah, Rufus Sha'ato, Okeke Rufina Obioma, Adegoke Abiodun Adebimpe, Adekola Omololu Atanda, Louis Ugwu, Oludayo Michael Akinsola

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i429978

Infant formula is a synthetic version of mother’s milk and belongs to a class of food materials known as dairy substitutes. This study was designed to evaluate the proximate composition of some selected infant formula sold in Makurdi metropolis. Six (6) different brands of infant formula samples were purchased from the major markets, Wadata market and North bank market Makurdi Benue State, North Central Nigeria. The six different brands comprise of three (3) infant milk formulae and three (3) infant cereal formulae. Samples on some Selected Infant Formulae were analysed in the laboratory for proximate composition and the data were subjected to Analysis of Variance to rank the significant differences in means. There were significantly different (P<0.05) across the selected infant formulae sample for moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fate, crude fibre and carbohydrates. The result shows that FRISOGOLD significantly (P<0.05) has the highest moisture content (11.60%) with cowbell having the lowest (2.45%) while the ash content of cowbell was found to be the highest compared to other formulae. In conclusion, the commercial baby food samples (MYBOY, NAN and cowbell) have a low moisture content which suggests an asset as this prolongs the shelf life and also inhibits microbial activity on these products thereby preventing spoilage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reduction of Detrimental Effect of Soybean Oil in-vivo Using Watermelon White Rind Extract

Hanan M. El-Ghandour

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i429979

Aim: To study the effect of white rind extract on decreasing soybean oil impact on calcium and phosphorous blood levels in vivo.

Method: Dried watermelon white rind was directed to mycotoxin and elemental determinations to assure its safe usage. Soybean oil was subjected to fatty acid and GC-MS analysis. Biological experiment was conducted using male albino rats fed diet prepared by soybean oil and supplied with aqueous watermelon white rind extract for two months’ interval period. At the end of the experiment, the calcium and phosphorus in blood were determined.

Results: The rind was free from aflatoxin and ochratoxin. Watermelon white rind aqueous extract contained iron, copper, potassium, chromium and selenium at concentration ranges of 3.4, 0.53, 45.51, 0.0142 and 0.0985 ppm, respectively.

Soybean oil had free fatty acid, peroxide value, iodine number and anisidine value of 0.43%, 13.62 meq O2/Kg, 132 and 0.7, respectively.

GC-MS analysis of soy oil ascertained the presence of twenty-four compounds: linoleic acid, methyl ester (25.27%), monensin (15.75%), elaidic acid (9.24%), nonadecanoic acid, methyl ester (7.04%), cis-13-eicosenoic acid (4.92%), cis-vaccenic acid (4.68%), linoleic acid (4.67%), palmitoleic acid (4.46%), 9-tetradecenal (4.42%) and cysteine (4.18%)were the most predominant.

Fatty acid profile of the oil showed that the ratio of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acids was 1:5.

Conclusion: Rats fed diet prepared by soybean oil had a decreased calcium level in comparison with negative control (p<0.05). Supplementation with watermelon white rind aqueous extract rendered calcium level to normal status as negative control. Phosphorus level wasn’t affected by soya oil.