Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Total Carotenoids in Some Vegetables Consumed in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Kufre Akpanikot, Ofonimeh Udofia, Otobong D. Akan, Moses Uchechi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i330010

The quantitative analysis of total carotenoids in some vegetables consumed in Akwa Ibom State was evaluated using UV-Spectrophotometer and acetone as extraction solvent. Ten different vegetable samples i.e. Carrot (Daucus carota),purpleegg plant(Solanum melongena), green egg plant (Solanum melongena), tomato(Solanum lycopersicum), cucumber(Cucummis sativa),fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis), spinach(Spinacia oleracea), red pepper(Capsicum annuum, green pepper(Capsicum annuum)and bitterleaf (Vernonia amygdalina)were purchased from local markets in Itam and Ikot Akpaden, both in Akwa Ibom State. The fresh samples were washed with tap water, followed by distilled water. The samples were homogenized separately using sterile mortar and pestle with 10 ml acetone as extraction solvent. The extract was centrifuged at 10,000rpm for 15 mins in 4°C and the supernatant analysed as soon as possible using spectrophotometer (UV-VIS 2500) at 470 nm. The quantification of carotenoids was carried out according to Harbone J B, 1973 andon the basis of Beer Lambert’s equation: A=ƸCL in mol/l and converted to mg/ml. From the result obtained, Capsicum annuum (red pepper) had the highest amount of carotenoids (2.889 mg/ml), Solanum lycopersicum showed the lowest amount of carotenoid (0.260 mg/ml) the deep green vegetables also had high quantity of carotenoids. Carotenoids are important due to the health benefits associated with the pigment acting as provitamin A, a strong antioxidant and gives colouration to plants. It also helps in preventing photo-damage in plants and has some health benefits like improving sight, reducing cancer risk to animals too. Further studies analyzing the individual carotenoids is recommended and investigation on the effect of time on extraction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Food Consumption on Food Production in Ibadan Oyo State

Oriowo Praise, Nwafor Solomon, Adegbola Jacob, Koko Michael

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i330012

Aims: The study determined the influence of food consumption on food production in Ibadan, Oyo State. It identified the predominant food produced; assessed the prevalent food consumption pattern; identified the underlying factors affecting food consumption, and determined the influence of food consumption patterns on food production in Ibadan, Oyo State.

Study Design: The study employed public opinion survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria between June 2018 and December 2018.

Methodology: Using the multistage sampling technique, data for the study were collected from a sample of two hundred and four (204) respondents.

Results: The result revealed that the predominant food produced in Ibadan included cereals, roots and tubers, legumes and nuts, meat and dairy products, fruits and leafy vegetables. The result revealed that respondents’ consumption pattern is spread across all the food groups. Factors determining the consumption of food were identified to include increased food prices (178%), seasonality of some crop (201%), cultural believes (202%), religious believes (194), personal traits (176%), ease of preparation (108%), affordability (172%), income (198%), taste (161%), and availability (181%). The joint effect of the explanatory variable in the model account for 75.9% of the variations in the factors affecting the quantity of food produced. Given that the F- statistics of 214.440 is significant at 1% level of significance, and the computed F- value higher than the F-tabulated value of (1.94) at 5% level of significance, therefore, the hypothesis that food consumption patterns have significant influence on food production was accepted.

Conclusion: The study thus concludes that food consumption patterns influences food production significantly in the study

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Processing on Ascorbic Acid and Dehydroascorbic Acid in Different Varieties of Yam

O. I. Ola, S. O. Opaleye

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i330013

The effect of some processing method on the ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid content of two cultivars of yam (Dioscorea rotundata and D. cayenensis) were investigated. The processing method adopted were cooking, frying and roasting. The assay of ascorbic acid in the two cultivars ranged from (5.0 – 9.2 mg / 100 g fresh tissue). The moisture contents of the processed samples ranged from 40-55% for D. rotundata and 48-60% for D.cayenensis except for roasted samples which had a moisture content of 30% for the two cultivars of yam.  The pH values were similar in all the varieties examined. The level of ascorbic acid after 0 - 8 days of storage ranged from 5.2 - 7.3 mg / 100 g fresh tissue on a moisture -free basis (mfb). The dehydroascorbic acid content varied from 5.0 - 9.2 mg / 100 g fresh tissue on a moisture- free basis. The retention in ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid of the various treatments ranged from 4.9 - 6.2 mg / 100 g and 5.2 - 8.9 mg / 100 g respectively. Thus, different processing methods has contributed to the loss of ascorbic acid with the highest loss observed when the yam samples were roasted and least loss when they were fried.

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Cucumber Fruit to Aqueous 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Application

Muharrem Ergun, Najat Ghareeb Kareem

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i330014

Aims: The objectives of the present study were to evaluate effects of aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on quality of cucumber fruit, and to compare with/to gaseous 1-MCP and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) applications.

Study Design: A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was set up for the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Horticulture, Bingol University, Turkey; between September - December 2017. 

Methodology: Cucumber fruits (ErdemliF1) were either treated with aqueous or gaseous 1-MCP (1 ppm), or left untreated for MAP storage or controls. The fruits were afterwards put into PET clamshell containers except for MAP application and stored 23 ± 1°C for 10 days for simulating retail shelf-life conditions. Samples of cucumbers were then tested periodically to record changes in quality as determined by weight loss, firmness, color, gas composition (O2, CO2 and N2), total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, chlorophyll content, and decay during the storage time.

Results: Neither aqueous nor gaseous 1-MCP application had a significant effect on weight or firmness loss. According to peel color values recording during the storage period, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Total soluble solids, pH or titratable acidity did not show a significant change or variation among treatments during the storage. Fruits stored in modified atmosphere packages showed higher chlorophyll a amount than fruit treated with 1-MCP.  

Conclusion: The study revealed that neither aqueous 1-MCP application nor gaseous 1-MCP application is effective for retaining quality loses and consequently for extending shelf life of the cucumbers kept at 23°C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Conditions (Relative Humidity, Packaging Materials and Time) on the Chemical Properties of Maize-soy Flour Blend

S. O. Akpapunam, J. K. Ikya, D. I. Gernah

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i330015

Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of storage conditions on the of maize-soy flour blend.

Study Design: Preliminary studies were conducted using ratio blends of 70:30, 75:25, 80:20, 85:15, 90:10, 95:5 and 100:0 of maize flour to soy flour. This was to ascertain the best blend formulation for the study. The sensory attributes showed that the ratio 85:15 of maize-soy flour blend was preferred. It was packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and stored at 30.5 ± 3°C with relative humidity of 57% and 82% for 4 months. Analysis of proximate composition, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), thiobarbuturic acid (TBA) was carried out on the samples at a monthly interval respectively.

Results: Packaging significantly (p > 0.05) affected the chemical qualities of “soy-fermented maize” flour during storage. Moisture content, titratable acidity (TTA) and thiobarbuturic acid (TBA) increased with the storage period (9.46% - 23.5%, 0.12% - 0.21%, and 0.06 - 0.12 respectively) while all other chemical qualities of the soy-fermented maize flour decreased significantly (p > 0.05) (pH: 5.18 - 3.45, protein: 15.21% - 12.18% fat: 7.45% - 5.36%, fibre: 3.27% - 1.65%, ash: 1.12% - 0.89% and carbohydrate: 62.97%  -  56.87%.

Conclusion: The samples packaged in HDPE were more acceptable than those in other packaging materials due to its considerable maintenance of the flour’s quality during and after storage.