Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals, In vitro Bioavailability of Beta Carotene and Anti-nutrient Composition of Some Neglected Underutilized Green Leafy Vegetables and Fruits in South East Geo-political Zone of Nigeria

N. N. Umerah, N. M. Nnam

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i230056

Background/Objective: Vegetables and fruits are important sources of protective substances, which are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. The study was designed to determine the phytochemicals, In-vitro-bioavailability of beta carotene and anti-nutrient composition of some neglected underutilized fruits and vegetables in Southeast geopolitical zone of Nigeria.

Methodology: The frequently occurred underutilized fruits and vegetables were selected for the study. The food crops were harvested and identified at the Herbarium in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka. Twenty underutilized fruits and vegetables each were cleaned and analysed for phytochemicals, In vitro bioavailability of beta carotene and anti-nutrients composition using standard methods. Data were presented using descriptive statistics, percentage, mean, standard deviation and frequency.

Results: The result showed that 0 - 40% of beta carotene were bioavailable in the fruits studied.  The antinutrient levels in fruits were cyanide (0.02-3.47 mg), oxalate 1.22-12.38 mg and phytate traces- 12.60 mg. The range of phytochemicals in the fruits were tannins trace-10.40 mg, flavonoids 0-0.10%, saponins trace-0.051 mg, lycopene trace-94.20 mg, and phenol 0-4.01mg. The antinutrient levels in vegetables were cyanide 0.35-13.20 mg, oxalate 2.27-24.69 mg and phytate traces- 2.57 mg.  The result showed that 22- 68.80% of beta carotene were bio available in the vegetables studied. The phytochemicals in the vegetables were tannins 0.10-10.30 mg, flavonoids trace-0.20%, saponins trace-0.10 mg, lycopene trace-31.20 mg and phenol 0.01-3.31 mg.

Conclusion: The use of these neglected fruits and vegetables is imperative because of their nutritional and health benefit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Minerals and Heavy Metals Content of Cassava, Plantain and Yam Flour Sold in Some Markets in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Ndukwe Maduka, Mercy Elenwo, Ngozi Nma Odu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i230057

The quality of retailed samples of cassava, yam and plantain flour produced in private homes without adequate monitoring is a concern to consumers. Consequently, this study was aimed at determining proximate composition, minerals and heavy metals content of fifteen (15) packaged and 15 exposed samples of flours obtained from three (3) supermarkets and 3 open markets in Port Harcourt, respectively using standard methods. Control samples were prepared in the laboratory. This study was carried out between April - August, 2017. Results obtained showed significant differences (p=.05) between each of the flours. Protein content of exposed cassava flour (2.3%) was higher than other cassava flour samples. Meanwhile, that of yam flour (3.22%) used as control was the highest among all flours. Crude fibre content of the cassava flour (3.12 - 5.46%) was higher than that of other flour samples. Ash content of the flour samples were lower than that of plantain flour (2.7 - 7.07%). Both moisture content of plantain flour used as control (13.22%) and exposed plantain flour (10.3%) were higher than that of other flour samples. Potassium, sodium, iron and calcium content of the packaged flour samples were higher than their respective control and exposed samples with few exceptions. Interestingly, heavy metals content of all samples were below Codex Alimentarius Commission permissible limits of 1.5, 1.0 and 1.0 mg/Kg for Pb, Cd and As, respectively. Therefore, flour fortification to improve their nutritional qualities as well as retailing only sealed flour samples could increase consumers’ confidence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition of Neglected Underutilized Green Leafy Vegetables and Fruits in South East Geo-political Zone of Nigeria

N. N. Umerah, N. M. Nnam

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i230058

Background/Objective: Vegetables and fruits play a highly significant role in food security of the underprivileged in both urban and rural settings. The study was designed to determine the nutritional composition of some neglected underutilized fruits and vegetables in Southeast geopolitical zone of Nigeria.

Methodology: The commonly occuring underutilized fruits and vegetables were selected for the study. The food crops were harvested and identified at the Herbarium in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka. Twenty underutilized fruits and vegetables each were cleaned and analysed for nutrients composition using standard methods. Data were presented using descriptive statistics, percentage, mean, standard deviation and frequency.

Results: The proximate composition of the fruits ranged from 54.34-80.30% moisture, 0.27-6.21% protein, 0-3.08% fat, 0.28-8.58 % fibre, 0.33-11.05% ash and 9.08-36.61% carbohydrate. The ranges for mineral values of the fruits were iron 0.10-9.60 mg, zinc 0.02-10.30 mg, manganese 0.10-6.60 mg and calcium 5.42-46.50 mg.  The vitamin contents of the fruits ranged from beta-carotene traces -5666.67 RE, ascorbic acid 0-48.82 mg and vitamin E 0 -11.99 mg. The proximate composition of the vegetables ranged from moisture 60.45-91.00%, protein 0.02-6.60%, fat 0.02-2.19%, fibre 0.04-5.01%, ash 0.04-4.20% and carbohydrate 10.30-36.61%. The ranges for mineral values of the vegetables were iron 1.40-14.80 mg, zinc trace-9.40 mg, manganese 0.07-4.80 mg and calcium 18.19-400.00 mg. The vitamin levels of the vegetables were beta-carotene 15.20-1933.33 RE, ascorbic acid 2.40-38.40 mg and vitamin E traces - 6.67 mg.

Conclusion: The use of these fruits and vegetables should be encouraged particularly in areas where they are not produced through nutrition education in order to promote the food use of these crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nori Level of Preference with Mixed Sargassum sp. and Eucheuma spinosum Seaweed as Raw Material

Abdurrahman Faris, Evi Liviawaty, Yuli Andriani, Eddy Affrianto

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i230059

This research aimed to obtain the best nori from a mixture of Sargassum sp and Eucheuma spinosum seaweed and the most preferred by panellists. The research's method used in this study is an experimental method with 3 treatments comparing the seaweed between Sargassum sp. and Eucheuma spinosum that is 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 then tests that used are hedonic test with 20 semi-trained panellists who have experience in organoleptic assessment as replications, physical and chemical tests were also tested for the best treatment according to hedonic test. This research was conducted at the Fisheries Product Processing Technology Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, while the chemical and physical testing of the final results of the research was conducted at the Laboratory of Biological Resources and Biotechnology at LPPM Institut Pertanian Bogor. This research was conducted on February 28, 2019, until March 8, 2019. Based on the results of the research level of preference of nori, it was found that all treatments carried out were still acceptable to the panellists, but the treatment with a ratio of 1: 1 was more preferred by panellists. Chemical characteristics of the Sargassum sp. and Eucheuma spinosum, namely water content contained in the amount of 15.67%, crude fibre content of 11.7% and physical characteristics of the hardness of 300.78 gf, also thickness with nori 0.347 mm.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Oral Intake of Sodium Benzoate on the Activity of Liver Marker Enzymes and Electrolyte Level of the Wistar Albino Rats

Efekemo, Oghenetekevwe, Essien, Eka Bassey, Akaninwor, Joyce Oronne

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i230060

The in vivo effect of oral administration of varying concentrations (150, 250, 500 mg/kg body wt) of sodium benzoate (a known preservative in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry) on serum liver marker enzyme activity and electrolyte levels of wistar albino rats were investigated. The oral intake was administered at 24 hour intervals for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The groups were labeled; control (group 1), 7days (group 2), 14days (group 3), 21 days (group 4) and 28days (group 5). The rats were fed normal diet ad libitum and blood sample for the determination was taken at the end of the duration. For serum electrolytes, the result obtained for sodium benzoate concentrations administered showed significant (p≤0.05) increase in sodium (Na+) for groups 3, 4 and 5 for 150 mg/kg body wt. and group 2, 3, 4 and 5 for 250 mg/kg body wt and 500mg/kg body wt. of experimental rats. Chloride (Cl-) showed significant (p≤0.05) increase at all administered groups for 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg. Potassium (K+) was only significantly increased at group 5 for 500mg/kg body wt. while for bicarbonate (HCO3) it showed no significant change in all treated groups. Values were all compared to the control. For liver marker enzymes, sodium benzoate significantly increased (p≤0.05) aspartate transaminase (AST) activity of experimental rats in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 of 250 mg/kg body wt. and 500mg/kg body wt., alanine transaminase (ALT) showed significant increase (p≤0.05)  in group 4 and 5 for 250 mg/kg body wt and group 2, 3, 4 and 5 for 500 mg/kg body wt., alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed significant (p≤0.05) increase in group 2, 3, 4 and 5 for 500 mg/kg body wt.These findings suggest possible changes in blood chemistry due to the preservative.