Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Peda Patin Jambal with Various Salt Concentration as Environment Control

Fauzi Martin, Eddy Afrianto, Rosidah ., Iis Rostini

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i130071

The aim of this research is to get the right salt concentration so as to produce the best peda patin jambal products with the best characteristics. The research’s method used in this study is an experimental method with three treatments, consists of salt concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40%. Hedonic tests were then used by 20 semi-trained panellists who had experience in organoleptic assessments which consisted of assessments of appearance, aroma, texture and taste. This research was conducted at the Fisheries Product Processing Technology Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, while the salt and water content testing of the final results of the research was conducted at the Laboratory of food technology at Universitas Pasundan Bandung. Based on the results of the research, the treatment of salt concentration of 30% produces the best pangal catfish products with the best characteristics, which are rather clean appearance, dull-white to reddish-white flesh, yellowish skin surface, wrinkles on the surface of the flesh and skin, have a distinctive fermentation aroma, have a pearly texture, and has a delicious, savory, slightly salty taste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Maize Based Complimentary Food Supplemented with Garden Peas

Moses T. Ukeyima, Israel O. Acham, Blessing A. Amaechi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i130074

The quality of complimentary food made from blends of maize ogi flour and garden pea flour was studied. Five blend ratios and codes of 100:0 (Sample A), 90:10 (Sample B), 80:20 (Sample C). 70:30 (Sample D) and 60:40 (Sample E) were developed for Maize ogi flour and garden pea flour respectively. Proximate compositions, functional and sensory properties of the samples were analyzed using standard methods. The result for the functional properties of the formulated complimentary food samples showed that the bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, swelling index and least gelation concentration ranged between 0.65 g/mL-0.75 g/mL, 1.73 g/g-1.87 g/g, 1.61 g/g-1.78 g/g, 5.97%-8.91%, 1.51 v/v-1.96 v/v and 6.00%-14.00% respectively. The proximate composition result revealed that the moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash and carbohydrate contents were 7.34%-7.96%, 6.24%-12.04%, 1.11%-10.16%, 2.13%-4.27%, 0.66%-1.44% and 64.75%-81.90% accordingly. The sensory evaluation carried out on the formulated samples by the panelists showed that the sample incorporated with 10% garden pea flour was the most preferred in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The study has indeed shown that it is possible to produce a maize based complimentary food supplemented with garden pea flour with up to 40% supplementation level. This will not only improve the macro- and micro-nutrient content, but it will also enhance the functional quality attributes as well. The formulated food product also has low moisture content, which will reduce drastically the proliferation of microorganisms which will ultimately guarantee the shelf life stability of the food. However, further studies should be carried out in exploring processing methods that produces Pea protein hydrolysate from Garden pea grains which can improve the protein content of the maize based complimentary food and help in meeting the protein demands of infants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Aloe vera in Reducing Formaldehyde Levels on Indian Mackerel Fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) During Cold Temperature Storage

Nurul Luthfia Kartika, Evi Liviawaty, Eddy Afrianto, Iis Rostini

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i130075

Aims: This research is aimed to know the impact of Aloe Vera to formaldehyde levels. Specifically, to know how Aloe Vera could reduce the formaldehyde levels on Indian mackerel fish during cold temperature storage.

Place and Duration of Study: Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, and Central Laboratory, Padjadjaran University between March until April 2019.

Methodology: This research used descriptively compared method with five different Aloe vera treatment concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%). Parameters of  observations such as formaldehyde levels, pH and organoleptic characteristics (fresh fish, formalin fish and after soaked with Aloe vera) descriptively compared with the literature.

Results: The results of the research show that Aloe vera could reduce the formaldehyde levels on Indian Mackerel, and the higher concentreation of Aloe vera used and the longer of storage period, the more reduced formaldehyde levels. The reduction caused by presence of saponins in Aloe vera. Saponins was effective in binding formaldehyde particles so that formaldehyde can dissolve with water. The highest percentage of fomaldehyde reduction was on the concentration of 40% Aloe vera solution, with a decrease percentage was 63.47% - 74.48% and the lowest percentage decrease in formalin levels found in the solution concentration Aloe vera 10%, with a decrease percentage was 50.14% - 68.22%. pH value of all treatment at the beggining was close to acidic (range 6.30 – 6.47), caused by Aloe vera gel and formalin which were both acidic. The pH value of all treatment after 10th observations days was still in the range of the pH value of fresh fish, which is 6.77 - 7.03. The increased pH value during cold temperature storage caused by fish undergoing a chemical process in the form of protein overhaul and the formation of alkaline compounds. The organoleptic parameters showed there is a difference between the characteristics of fresh fish, fish in formalin and after the fish soaked on Aloe vera solution. The fresh fish had average value of 7.00 – 8.33 based on the score sheet, which indicates Indian Mackerel was fresh before the treatment. After soaked in formalin, the appearance has changed to be not bright, formaldehyde can be smelled, texture changed slightly hard, and the eye became gloom and murky white. After soaked with Aloe vera, the appearance became a little bright and shiny, could be smelled aroma of Aloe vera, texture became dense, and loss of cloudy corneas.  

Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that by increasing Aloe vera solution until 40%, will also increased the reduction of formaldehyde levels on Indian mackerel fish during cold storage until 10th day. At a concentration of 40% Aloe vera solution, it can reduce the highest formaldehyde levels with a range of percentage decreases in formalin levels by 63.47% - 74.48%, so that aloe vera could effectively reduce formalin levels in Indian mackerel during cold temperature storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seaweed Flour Fortification to the Preference Level of Milk Chocolate Bar

Selvia Stefani, Rusky Intan Pratama, Iis Rostini, Eddy Afrianto

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i130076

Chocolate is product that made by cocoa powder as main ingredient. Chocolate contains sugar and fat that can cause diabetes and constipation. In order to serve good taste of chocolate, it also required to make chocolate that good for health. One of the best ways to produce healthier chocolate was the addition of seaweed which contain a lot of fiber. The purpose of this research was to found out the best percentage of seaweed flour in milk chocolate bar preferred by panelists based on organoleptic and chemical test. The research was carried out at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, and Rumansia Nutrition Laboratory, Faculty of animal husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran, from March to April 2019. The research method used was an experimental composed of 4 treatments and 20 panelists a repeat. Included treatment was the addition of seaweed flour by 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% based on the amount of chocolate bar. Observations were made on the level of preference which included appearance, aroma, texture and taste by trained panelists, test of water content and dietary fiber content. The results showed that mik chocolate bar with 5% oddition  of seaweed flour was which was most preferred by panelists with an average score of appearance, aroma, texture and taste are 7.00; 7.00; 6.10 and 6.20. Chemical test results of water content is 2.10%, and fiber content is 8.65%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Physico-chemical and Antioxidant Activity Properties of Attieke Flour Enriched with Cashew Kernel (Anacardium occidentale L.) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) Powders

Salimata Kone, Doudjo Soro, Ernest Kouadio Koffi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i130077

The objective of this study is to produce an infant flour based on attiéké enriched with Moringa oleifera and cashew kernel (Anacardium ¶occidentale L.) powders. For this purpose, Moringa oleifera powder is incorporated in proportions of 10%, 15% and 20% into two types of composite flours (attiéké / unfermented cashew kernel and attiéké / fermented cashew kernel). Mineralogical, physico-chemical and antioxidant activity are performed. The results of the mineralogical analyzes showed potassium is the majority in composite flours. In addition, the calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc contents in the composite flours conformity with the standards. The fortification of attiéké flour with Moringa oleifera and cashew kernel powders resulted in an increase in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, as well as protein contents which vary from 11.59 ± 0.10 g / 100 g of 16.59 ± 0.26 g / 100 g. Moringa and cashew kernel powders have increased the nutritional quality of attiéké flour.